Göteborgs universitet
Eduardo Infantes i ett av centrets labb
Foto: Anna-Lena Lundqvist


På centret bedrivs forsknings- och innovationsprojekt inom en rad olika marina områden. Några av dem innefattar att utveckla nya material och livsmedel från havet. Andra berör klimatets påverkan på det marina livet och omfattar både undervattensrobotar och digital teknik. Gästforskare från hela världen kommer till centret för fält- och labbarbete.


Vetenskapliga publikationer där Kristinebergs infrastruktur använts eller som involverat forskare som är aktiva på stationen.


Gustafsson M, Strand Å, Laugen AT, Albretsen J, André C, Broström G, Jorde PE, Knutsen H, Ortega-Martinez O, Sodeland M, Waern M, Wrange AL, De Wit P. Unlocking the secret life of blue mussels: Exploring connectivity in the Skagerrak through biophysical modeling and population genomics. Evol Appl. 2024 May;17(5).
"This article examines dispersal barriers and population structures of blue mussels along the Swedish west coast and how this information can be used for managing mussel populations. Despite the species' high dispersal potential, the study found a complex pattern of source-sink populations and several dispersal barriers within the studied area. This suggests that mussels in different regions should be managed as separate populations."

Franzén F, Strand Å, Stadmark J, Ingmansson I, Thomas JB, Söderqvist T, Sinha R, Gröndahl F, Hasselström L. Governance hurdles for expansion of low trophic mariculture production in Sweden. Ambio. 2024.
"A study where we examined how low-trophic aquaculture is regulated in Sweden. We found that there are several challenges with the current regulation of low-trophic aquaculture (outdated legislation, numerous decision-making bodies, and lengthy and costly permit procedures). These can be improved through clearer direction and integration of various regulatory conditions, coordinated decision-making, mechanisms for conflict resolution, and training of the responsible authorities."

Turner J, Bellerby R, Schoo K, Law C, Dupont S, Calosi P, Hernandez Ayon JM, Moore TS, Horwith M, Hennessey J, et al. OARS Outcome 2: Identify data and evidence needs for OA mitigation and adaptation strategies, from local to global. In: Ocean Acidification Research for Sustainability – A Community Vision for the Ocean Decade. Paris: UNESCO; 2024. (IOC Technical Series, 185).

Garçon V, Hernandez Ayon JM, Dupont S, Isensee K, Currie K, Widdicombe S, et al. OARS Outcome 3: Co-design and implement observation strategies. In: Ocean Acidification Research for Sustainability – A Community Vision for the Ocean Decade. Paris: UNESCO; 2024. (IOC Technical Series, 185).

Dupont S, Muller-Karger F, Canonico G, Schoo KL, Castillo-Briceno P, Johnson MD, et al. OARS Outcome 4: Increase understanding of ocean acidification impacts to protect marine life by 2030. In: Ocean Acidification Research for Sustainability – A Community Vision for the Ocean Decade. Paris: UNESCO; 2024. (IOC Technical Series, 185)
"A small book published by the Ocean Acidification Research for Sustainability program, an UN Ocean decade endorsed program, as a framework to address ocean acidification. It is composed of different chapters, where Sam Dupont, resident researchers at Kristineberg,  contributed to the three chapters above."

Miksch L, Chen CY, Granberg ME, Krång A-S, Gutow L, Saborowski R. Biodegradable microplastics: Uptake by and effects on the rockpool shrimp Palaemon elegans (Crustacea: Decapoda). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2024 Apr 1;274:116184.
"In this study, we compared how bio-based, biodegradable microplastics and conventional, fossil-based microplastics are ingested and affect the rockpool shrimp Palaemon elegans. It was observed that the shrimps had more of the biodegradable microplastics in their stomachs, for a longer period, which also led to increased activity of the digestive enzyme (carboxylesterase). This indicates that the use of biodegradable plastics as less harmful alternatives may need to be reconsidered. The study was conducted at the Kristineberg Center by researchers from the German Alfred Wegener Institute and the IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, within the EU project BIO-PLASTICS EUROPE."

Coubris C, Duchatelet L, Dupont S, Mallefet J. A brittle star is born: Ontogeny of luminous capabilities in Amphiura filiformis. PLoS One. 2014;19(3):e0298185
"In this paper, we follow the acquisition of the luminous capabilities in the brittlestar Amphiura filiformis and show that it is absent in larvae and appear after metamorphosis. It has been done in Kristineberg with the team of Prof. Mallefet, an old friend of the station."

Hauri C, Irving B, Dupont S, Pagés R, Hauser DDW, Danielson SL. Insights into carbonate environmental conditions in the Chukchi Sea. Biogeosciences. 2024;21(5):1135–59.
"In this collaboration with Alaska, we developed creative analysis procedure to resolve the dynamic of the seawater carbonate chemistry in the Chuksi sea. It strongly shows that as a consequence of climate change and ocean acidification, the environmental conditions are dangerously deviating from what marine ecosystems are adapted to."

Ylva R, Cederberg C, Jonell M, Bergman K, De Boer IJM, Einarsson R, Karlsson J, Karlsson Potter H, Martin M, Metson GS, Nemecek T, Nicholas KA, Strand Å, Tidåker P, Van der Werf H, Vanham D, Van Zanten HHE, Verones F, Röös E. Environmental assessment of diets: overview and guidance on indicator choice. Lancet Planet Health. 2024;8:e172–87.
"The publication summarizes commonly used indicators for assessing the environmental performance of diets, briefly outlines their benefits and drawbacks, and provides recommendations on indicator choices for environmental assessment of diets. We recommend that environmental assessment of diets should include indicators for at least the five following areas: climate change, biosphere integrity, blue water consumption, novel entities, and impacts on natural resources (especially wild fish stocks), to capture important environmental trade-offs."

Aguzzi J, Thomsen L, Flögel S, Robinson NJ, Picardi G, Chatzievangelou D, Bahamon N, Stefanni S, Grinyó J, Fanelli E, Corinaldesi C, Del Rio Fernandez J, Calisti M, Mienis F, Chatzidouros E, Costa C, Violino S, Tangherlini M, Danovaro R. New Technologies for Monitoring and Upscaling Marine Ecosystem Restoration in Deep-Sea Environments. Engineering. 2024
"Marine deep-sea restoration should be based on landers with docked crawlers and AUVs, allowing in-situ autonomous interventions, battery recharging, and remote data transmission. We describe three potential case-studies for robotic-mediated restoration in deep-sea iconic environments."

Hauri C, Pages R, Hedstrom KS, Doney SC, Dupont S, Ferriss B, Stuecker M. More Than Marine Heatwaves: A New Regime of Heat, Acidity, and Low Oxygen Compound Extreme Events in the Gulf of Alaska. ESS Open Archive. 2023 Sep 11.
"Through a collaboration with colleagues in Alaska, we show that more than a slow change, climate change and ocean acidification are driving extreme events in the sea (heat and acidic waves) that when combined can lead to dramatic impacts on marine ecosystems."

Shixiu W, Yichi M, Khan FU, Dupont S, Huang W, Tu Z, Yueyong S, Wang Y, Hu M. Size-dependent effects of plastic particles on antioxidant and immune responses of the thick-shelled mussel Mytilus coruscus. Sci Total Environ. 2024 Jan;914(6):169961.
"Article from a long-term collaboration with the University of Shanghai in China studying the impact of plastic on local mussels."

Cossa D, Infantes E, Dupont S, Hidden cost of pH variability in seagrass beds on marine calcifiers under ocean acidification. Sci Total Environ. 2024;915:170169.
"Restauration of seagrass is critical for the good health of the environment. It is also suggested to be a buffer for ocean acidification as photosynthesis during the day consume carbon dioxide and increase the pH. In this experiment performed at Kristineberg, we show that it does not really work as the decrease in pH during the night drive stronger negative effects on marine organisms."

Gustafsson E, Winder M, Dupont S. Ocean Acidification poses another threat to the Baltic Sea Ecosystem.
"Policy brief done in collaboration with the Baltic Sea Centre and aiming at policy makers and other key societal actors around the Baltic sea"

Guyot-Téphany J, Trouillet B, Diederichsen S, Juell-Skielse E, Thomas JBE, McCann J, Rebours C, Scherer M, Freeman P, Gröndahl F, Walsh JP, Lukic I. Two decades of research on ocean multi-use: achievements, challenges and the need for transdisciplinarity. npj Ocean Sustainability. 2024;3:8.

Chopin T, Costa-Pierce BA, Troell M, Hurd CL, Costello MJ, Backman S, Buschmann AH, Cuhel R, Duarte CM, Gröndahl F, Heasman K, Haroun RJ, Johansen J, Jueterbock A, Lench M, Lindell S, Pavia H, Ricart AM, Sundell KS, Yarish C. Deep-ocean seaweed dumping for carbon sequestration: Questionable, risky, and not the best use of valuable biomass. One Earth. 2024.



Barbir J, Arato E, Chen CY, Granberg M, Gutow L, Krang AS, Kroeger SD, Leal W, Liwarska-Bizukojc E, Miksch L, Paetz K, Prodana M, Saborowski R, Rojas RS, Witt G. Assessing ecotoxicity of an innovative bio-based mulch film: a multi-environmental and multi-bioassay approach. Front. Environ. Sci. 2023;11:1171261. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2023.1171261

Barbir J, Arato E, Chen CY, Granberg M, Gutow L, Krang AS, Kroeger SD, Leal W, Liwarska-Bizukojc E, Miksch L, Paetz K, Prodana M, Saborowski R, Rojas RS, Witt G. Assessing ecotoxicity of an innovative bio-based mulch film: a multi-environmental and multi-bioassay approach. Front. Environ. Sci. 2023;11:1171261. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2023.1171261

Barcelona A, Colomer J, Serra T, Cossa D, Infantes E. The role epiphytes play in particle capture of seagrass canopies. Marine Environ Res. 2023;192:106238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2023.106238

Behbehani M, Uddin S, Dupont S, Fowler SW, Gorgun AU, Al-Enezi Y, Al-Musallam L, Kumar VV, Faizuddin M. Ocean Acidification-Mediated Food Chain Transfer of Polonium between Primary Producers and Consumers. Toxics. 2023;11(1):14. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010014

Belivermiş M, Kılıç Ö, Gezginci-Oktayoglu S, Sezer N, Demiralp S, Sahin B, Dupont S. Physiological and gene expression responses of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to low pH and low dissolved oxygen. Marine Pollution Bull. 2023;187:114602. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2023.114602

Bourlat S.J., Tschan G.F., Martin S., Iqram M., Leidenbergers, S. A red listing gap analysis of molluscs and crustaceans in Northern Europe: What has happened in the last 10 years? Biological Conservation. 2023;286:110247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2023.110247

Briddon, C. L., Nicoară, M., Hegedüs, A., Niculea, A., Bellerby, R., Eikrem, W., Crespo, B. G., Dupont, S., & Drugă, B. Acclimation to various temperature and pCO2 levels does not impact the competitive ability of two strains of Skeletonema marinoi in natural communities. Front. Mar. Sci. 2023;10:1197570. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2023.1197570

Cossa D, Cossa M, Timba I, Nhaca J, Macia A, Infantes E. Drones and machine-learning for monitoring dugong feeding grounds and gillnet fishing. MEPS. 2023;716:123-136. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps14361

Costa E, Wrange AL, Collier ES, Niimi J, Strand Å. Beyond raw: Investigating alternative preparation methods as a tool to increase acceptance of oysters in Sweden. Future Foods. 2023;7:100217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fufo.2023.100217

Cowan ZL, Andreassen AH, De Bonville J, Green L, Binning SA, Silva-Garay L, Jutfelt F, Sundin J. A novel method for measuring acute thermal tolerance in fish embryos. Conserv Physiol. 2023;11. https://doi.org/10.1093/conphys/coad061

Dahl M, Asplund ME, Bergman S, Björk M, Braun S, Löfgren E, Martí E, Masque P, Svensson R, Gullström M. First assessment of seagrass carbon accumulation rates in Sweden: A field study from a fjord system at the Skagerrak coast. PLOS Climate. 2023. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pclm.0000099

Dupont S, Metian M. General considerations for experimental research on ocean alkalinity enhancement. Copernicus Publications; State Planet. 2023;2-oae2023-4. https://doi.org/10.5194/sp-2-oae2023-4-2023

Egea LG, Infantes E, Jimenez-Ramos R. Loss of POC and DOC on seagrass sediments by hydrodynamics. Sci Total Environ. 2023 Nov 25;901:165976. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.165976

Gagnon K, Bocoum EH, Chen CY, Baden SP, Moksnes PO, Infantes E. Rapid faunal colonization and recovery of biodiversity and functional diversity following eelgrass restoration. Restor Ecol. 2023;31(4). https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.13887

Gondikas A, Mattsson K, Hassellöv M. Methods for detection and characterization of boat paint microplastics in the marine environment. Front. Environ. Chem. 2023 Jan 26;4. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvc.2023.1090704

Goßmann I, Mattsson K, Hassellöv M, Crazzolara C, Held A, Robinson T-B, Wurl O, Scholz-Böttcher B. A contribution to unravel the marine microplastic cycle - A first coherent data set for air, sea surface microlayer, and underlying water. Environ Sci Technol. 2023;57:16541-51. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.3c05002

Grdan S, Cetinic AB, Dupont S, Glamuzina L. Potential for acclimation of banded-dye murex, Hexaplex trunculus (Linnaeus, 1758) after long-term exposure to low pH. Nase More. 2023;70(3):137-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.17818/NM/2023/SI1

Green L, Faust E, Hinchcliffe J, Brijs J, Holmes A, Englund Örn F, Svensson O, Roques JAC, Leder EH, Sandblom E, Kvarnemo C. Invader at the edge - Genomic origins and physiological differences of round gobies across a steep urban salinity gradient. Evolutionary Applications 16: 321-337. https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.13437

Greeve Y, Bergström P, Strand Å, Lindegarth M. Estimating and scaling up biomass and abundance of epi- and infaunal bivalves in a Swedish archipelago region: Implications for ecological functions and ecosystem services. Front Mar Sci. 2023 Jan 24;10:1105999. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2023.1105999

Greeve Y, Bergström P, Strand Å, Lindegarth M. Estimating and scaling-up biomass and abundance of epi- and infaunal bivalves in a Swedish archipelago region: Implications for ecological functions and ecosystem services. Front. Mar. Sci. 2023 Jan 24;10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2023.1105999

Guinguina A, Hayes M, Gröndahl F, Krizsan S. Potential of the Red Macroalga Bonnemaisonia hamifera in Reducing Methane Emissions from Ruminants. Animals. 2023;13(18):2925. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13182925

Hughes A, Bonačić K, Cameron T, Collins K, da Costa F, Debney A, et al. Site selection for European native oyster (Ostrea edulis) habitat restoration projects: An expert-derived consensus. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst. 2023;33(7):721-736. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.3917

Iitembu JA, Fitzgerald D, Altintzoglou T, Boudry P, Britz P, Byron CJ, Delago D, Girard S, Hannon C, Kafensztok M, Lagreze F, Legat JFA, Legat AP, Michaelis AK, Pleym IE, Sühnel S, Walton W, Strand Å.  Comparative Description and Analysis of Oyster Aquaculture in Selected Atlantic Regions: Production, Market Dynamics, and Consumption Patterns. Fishes. 2023;8(12):584. https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8120584

Ismail RO, Asplund ME, Gullström M, George R, Dahl M, Buriyo AS, Mtolera MSP, Björk M. Effects of calcification on air-water CO2 fluxes in tropical seagrass meadows: A mesocosm experiment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 2023 Apr;561:151864. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2022.151864

Jansson, E; André, C; Quintela, M; Halvorsen, KT; Besnier, F; Ayllon, F; Faust, E; Knutsen, H; Strand, Å; Glover, KA Genetic study reveals local differentiation persisting in the face of high connectivity and a genomic inversion likely linked with sexual antagonism in a common marine fish. ICES Journal of Marine Science. May 2023;80(4):1103–1112. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsad042

Jiménez-Lamana J, Gondikas A, Mattsson K, Gigault J. Editorial: Analytical methodologies for the analysis and monitoring of nano/microplastics pollution. Front. Environ. Chem. 2023 Mar 29;4. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvc.2023.1191236

Johannesson K, Leder EH, André C, Dupont S, Eriksson SP, Harding K, Havenhand JN, Jahnke M, Jonsson PR, Kvarnemo C, Pavia H, Rafajlovic M, Rödström EM, Thorndyke M, Blomberg A. Ten years of marine evolutionary biology-Challenges and achievements of a multidisciplinary research initiative. Evolutionary Appl. 2023;16(2):530-541. https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.13389

Johansson T, Sköld S, Andersson C, Krång AS, Winnes H, Andersson C, Hoppe S. Underwater noise from fairways – policies, incentives and measures to reduce the environmental impact. IVL Report 2023;C 743:82.

Jönander C, Egardt J, Hasselloev IM, Tiselius P, Rasmussen M, Dahllöf I. Exposure to closed-loop scrubber washwater alters biodiversity, reproduction, and grazing of marine zooplankton. Front. Mar. Sci. 2023 Nov 20;10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvc.2023.1191236

Kvarnemo C, Green L, Svensson O, Lindström K, Schöld S, Griful-Dones M, Havenhand JN, Leder EH. Molecular, behavioural and morphological comparisons of sperm adaptations in a fish with alternative reproductive tactics. Evolutionary Applications 16: 338-353. https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.13438

Laugen AT, Wrange A-L, Krång A-S, Reamon MC, Svedberg K, Waldetoft H, Strand Å. Kunskapsunderlag för en enhetlig förvaltning av OSPAR-listade Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar. Del 1 Nulägesanalys av Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar i Sverige. IVL Rapport C729, 99s

Li J, Bergman K, Jean-Baptiste T, Gao Y, Gröndahl F. Life Cycle Assessment of a large commercial kelp farm in Shandong, China. Science of The Total Environment. 2023 Dec 10;903:166861. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.166861

Mattsson K, de Lima Aristéia J, Wilkinson T, Järlskog J, Ekstrand E, Andersson Y, Gustafsson M, Hassellöv M. Tyre and road wear particles form source to sea . Micropl Nanopl. 2023;3:14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43591-023-00060-8

Mattsson K, Hagberg M, Hassellöv M. Platinum vaporization-deposition coated polycarbonate membranes for comprehensive, multimodal, and correlative microscopic analysis of micro-and nanoplastics and other environmental particles. Talanta. 2024;269:125435. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2023.125435

Mitrano DM, Bigalke M, Booth AM, Catarci Carteny C, Coffin S, Egger M, Gondikas A, Hueffer T, Koelmans AA, Lahive E, Mattsson K, Reynaud S, Wagner S. Training the next generation of plastics pollution researchers: Tools, skills and career perspectives in an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary field . Micropl Nanopl. 2023;3:24. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43591-023-00072-4

Nakano H, Nakano A, Maeno A, Thorndyke MC. Induced spawning with gamete release from body ruptures during reproduction of Xenoturbella bocki. Commun Biol 6, 172 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-023-04549-z

Nathaniel H, Franzén D, Lingegård S, Franzén F, Söderqvist T, Gröndahl F. Using stakeholder perceptions to deepen the understanding of beachcast governance and management practices on Gotland, Sweden. Ocean Coast Manag. 2023 May 15;239:106583. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2023.106583

Nylund AT, Hassellöv IM, Tengberg A, Bensow R, Broström G, Hassellöv M, Arneborg L. Hydrographical implications of ship-induced turbulence in stratified waters, studied through field observations and CFD modelling. Front. Mar. Sci. 2023 Dec 21;10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2023.1273616

Picone M, Russo M, Distefano GG, Baccichet M, Marchetto D, Ghirardini AV, Hermansson AL, Petrovic M, Gros M, Garcia E, Giubilato E, Calgaro L, Magnusson K, Granberg M, Marcomini A. Impacts of exhaust gas cleaning systems (EGCS) discharge waters on planktonic biological indicators. Marine Pollution Bulletin. May 2023;190:114846. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2023.114846

Ramesh K, Svanberg L, Casties I, Eriksson S, Dupont S. Photographic characterisation of acidification-induced larval malformations in the European lobster Homarus gammarus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Decapoda: Astacidea: Nephropidae). Journal of Crustacean Biol. 2023;43(4):ruad066. https://doi.org/10.1093/jcbiol/ruad066

Sköld H, Kvarnemo C. Färggranna flörtar i havet. Havsutsikt. Nr 2, 2023. https://www.havet.nu/havsutsikt/artikel/farggranna-flortar-i--havet

Sühnel S, Lagreze-Squella FJ, Legat JFA, Puchnick-Legat A, Strand Å, de Melo CMR. Effects of Salinity on the Reproductive Cycle of the Mangrove Oyster Crassostrea tulipa in Hatchery Conditions. Aquacult Res. 2023;Article ID 7409585:12 https://doi.org/10.1155/2023/7409585

Troell M, Costa-Pierce B, Stead S, Cottrell R, Brugere C, Farmery A, Little D, Strand Å, Pullin R, Soto D, Beveridge M, Salie K, Dresdner J, Moraes-Valenti P, Blanchard J, James P, Yossa R, Allison E, Devaney C, Barg U. Perspectives on aquaculture's contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals for improved human and planetary health. World Aquaculture Society. Global Conference on Aquaculture Millennium+20: Aquaculture for Food and Sustainable Development - Thematic Reviews. [Special issue]. 2023;54:251-342. https://doi.org/10.1111/jwas.12946

Weerathunga V, Hung CC, Dupont S, Hsieh HH, Piyawardhana N, Yuan FL, Kao KJ, Huang KC, Huang WJ. Ocean acidification increases inorganic carbon over organic carbon in shrimp's exoskeleton. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2023;192:115050. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2023.115050

Widdicombe S, Isensee K, Artioli Y, Gaitán-Espitia JD, Hauri C, Newton JA, Wells M, Dupont S. Unifying biological field observations to detect and compare ocean acidification impacts across marine species and ecosystems: What to monitor and why. Ocean Sci. 2023;19(1):101–119. https://doi.org/10.5194/os-19-101-2023

Wikner J, Vikström K. Extensive prokaryotic maintenance respiration in the sea influenced by osmoregulation. Front. Mar. Sci. 2023 Mar 10;10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2023.1070070

Wilkinson T, Järlskog I, de Lima JA, Gustafsson M, Mattsson K, Sköld YA, Hassellöv M. Shades of grey-tire characteristics and road surface influence tire and road wear particle (TRWP) abundance and physicochemical properties. Front Environ Sci. 2023;11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2023.1258922

Xie Z, Shi J, Shi Y, Tu Z, Hu M, Yang C, Deng Y, Dupont S, Xu Z, Wang Y. Physiological responses to salinity change and diel-cycling hypoxia in gills of Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. Aquaculture. 2023;570:739443. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2023.739443

zu Ermgassen PSE, Strand Å, Bakker N, et al. Overcoming Ostrea edulis seed production limitations to meet ecosystem restoration demands in the UN decade on restoration. Aquat Living Resour. 2023;36:16. https://doi.org/10.1051/alr/2023012