Göteborgs universitet
Child swimming in the Baltic Sea
Foto: Anders Tedeholm/Azote

Why should we care?

There are several reasons why we should consider genetic biodiversity in management and conservation. In the Baltic Sea, facing more rapidly increasing temperatures and faster decreasing salinities than other marine areas over the coming century, genetic diversity will mitigate loss of species.

Genetic biodiversity improves ecosystem function

Genetic biodiversity contributes to ecosystem function much in the same way as species biodiversity – by increasing variability. Hereby, biodiversity on the genetic level provides a wider range of functions, including increased resistance to stress and new environmental states.

Photo of an eelgras meadow.
Eelgrass meadows that consist of many different clones (high genetic diversity) produce more biomass, host more associated fauna and are more resistant to extreme weather conditions than meadows with low clonal richness.
Foto: Nicklas Wijkmark/Azote

Changes in the genetic composition of populations will affect the function of the ecosystems, including production of goods and services. Just like changes in species composition of the ecosystem do.

Genetic biodiversity enables local adaptation

Genetic biodiversity is what makes local adaptation possible. It provides species and populations with the raw material to adapt to environmental changes. Individuals of a population that have evolved local adaptation to a specific area have inherited traits, making them more fit to live in this area than other individuals of the same species.

Baltic populations of cod have evolved traits that make these cods able to live and reproduce in the low saline water of the Baltic Sea. Losing this large predatory fish would affect the whole Baltic Sea ecosystem. <br /> Photo: Patrick Gijsber
Foto: Patrick Gijsber

The eastern Baltic population of cod has evolved traits that make these cods able to live and reproduce in the low saline water of the Baltic Sea. For example, their eggs have increased buoyancy that prevent them sinking too deep. Cods from areas with higher salinity can not reproduce in this environment. Thus, they can not replace Baltic cod should the eastern population vanish. Losing this large predatory fish would affect the whole Baltic Sea ecosystem. Previous experience suggest that overfishing of cod will have cascading effects on the populations of herring, sprat, plankton and seaweeds.

If a locally adapted population goes extinct, it will take time to fill up this area again with individuals from other populations. They need to evolve relevant adaptations first. This is thus equivalent to local loss of a species.

Genetic biodiversity is an insurance

Genetic biodiversity provides the potential for a population to adapt to changes in the environment. With more genetic variation present in a population, the populations´ chances to survive future environmental changes increases. To be able to adapt to temperature increase, salinity decline, new predators or competitors, or new diseases or parasites, the populations need large pools of genetic variation.

Small populations have much less genetic variation than large populations. Several generations of small populations will rapidly reduce the genetic variation. Thus, small populations have far less chances than large populations to adapt to environmental changes. 

"Useless" variation get crucial

Genetic variation that does not currently contribute to fitness may be useful in the future. As in this exemple with sticklebacks: Sticklebacks are found in both marine and freshwater environments. In freshwater, almost all individuals carry the “EDA allele”, a gene variant crucial for survival in freshwater environments. Sticklebacks living in marine environments also carry this allele, but typically by only a few percent of the individuals.

The low frequency in marine environments is explained by the fact that the EDA allele is weakly detrimental in marine environments. Thus, due to natural selection the allele will decrease in marine populations. However, the allele is not completely lost. In freshwater, natural selection will favour individuals carrying the EDA allele and it will again increase in frequency.

Sticklebacks live in both marine and freshwater environments. Marine populations carry gene variants that have no or even harmful effects in that environment, but are crucial for the species ability to live in freshwater.
Foto: Joakim Hansen/Azote


Although it´s hard to know which gene variants will be needed in the future, high levels of genetic diversity provides a population with more "tickets" in the lottery.

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Genes and biodiversity

Genetic data in management and conservation

Genetic data is useful in management and conservation, for example to identify population structure, help prioritize and estimate effective population size.  Click for more.

Legal commitments

The fundamental importance of genetic biodiversity is reflected in several commitments agreed upon internationally. The Convention of Biological Diversity, the EU Habitats Directive, the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the Baltic Sea Action Plan all provide goals for genetic diversity.