University of Gothenburg

Fugl-Meyer Assessment

Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) scale is an index to assess the sensorimotor impairment in individuals who have had stroke. This scale was first proposed by Axel Fugl-Meyer and his colleagues 1975 as a standardized assessment test for post-stroke recovery in their paper titled “The post-stroke hemiplegic patient: A method for evaluation of physical performance”. It is now widely used for clinical assessment of motor function.

The Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper extremity (FMA-UE) has been tested extensively, and is found to have excellent psychometric properties. It is considered to assess the body function according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

The FMA motor assessments for the upper (maximum score 66 points) and lower extremity (maximum score 34 points) are recommended as core measures to be used in every stroke recovery and rehabilitation trial.

Original publication

The post-stroke hemiplegic patient
I. A method for evaluation of physical performance

Fugl-Meyer AR, Jääskö L, Leyman I, Olsson S, Steglind S.
Scand J Rehabil Med. 1975;7(1):13-31.

Video (09:56)
Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper extremity – Instruction video
Video (09:56)
Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Lower Extremity - Instruction Video




Transcultural translation and validation of Fugl–Meyer assessment to Italian
Cecchi F, Carrabba C, Bertolucci F, Castagnoli C, Falsini C, Gnetti B, et al.
Disability and Rehabilitation 2020: 1–6.



The Korean Version of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment: Reliability and Validity Evaluation
Kim TL, Hwang SH, Lee WJ, Hwang JW, Cho I, Kim EH, Lee JA, Choi Y, Park JH, Shin JH.
Ann Rehabil Med. 2021 Apr 14. doi: 10.5535/arm.20225.






Translation of the Fugl-Meyer assessment into Romanian: Transcultural and semantic-linguistic adaptations and clinical validation.
Onose G, Anghelescu A, Ionescu A, Tataranu LG, Spînu A, Bumbea AM, Toader C, Tuţă S, Carare RO, Popescu C, Munteanu C, Collaborative Working Group and Daia C (2023)
Front. Neurol. 13:1022546. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2022.1022546



Translation and cultural validation of clinical observational scales - the Fugl-Meyer assessment for post stroke sensorimotor function in Colombian Spanish
Barbosa NE, Forero SM, Galeano CP, Hernandez ED, Landinez NS, Sunnerhagen KS, Alt Murphy M.
Disabil Rehabilitation 2018:1-7

Intra- and inter-rater reliability of Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Upper Extremity in stroke
Hernández ED, Galeano CP, Barbosa NE, Forero SM, Nordin Å, Sunnerhagen S, Alt Murphy M.
J Rehabil Med 2019;51:652-659

Intra- and interrater reliability of Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Lower Extremity early after stroke
Hernandez ED, Forero SM, Galeano CP, Barbosa NE, Sunnerhagen KS, Alt Murphy M.
Braz J Phys Ther 2020.




Urdu translation and cross-cultural validation of the Fugl-Meyer assessment in people with stroke
Mehwish Ikram, Syed Shakil ur Rehman, Katharina S. Sunnerhagen & Margit Alt Murphy (2021) Disability and Rehabilitation, DOI: 10.1080/09638288.2021.2003449