Background and aim
Beside the main aim the study also endeavored to find factors explaining differences and patterns in the performance of written composition and other outcomes, with particular attention being paid to cultural background, curriculum, and teaching practices. Six types of writing were assessed (reflective, personal, philosophic, argumentative, persuasive, and literary) on four dimensions: style and tone, overall impression, content, and organization. The data were collected in 1985.
The study included three populations: students near the end of primary schooling, students near the end of compulsory schooling, and students near the end of academic secondary school.
Participating Educational Systems
Chile, England, Finland, Hamburg-Germany (FRG), Hungary, Indonesia, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Sweden, Thailand, United States, Wales.
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