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Publications on chemical risk assessment and management strategies
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Here you find a list of publications from FRAM sorted by year. In addition, fifty central publications selected to give an overview of the expertise in the FRAM consortium prior the start of the center.


Jönander, C., Dahllöf, I. (2020) Short and long-term effects of low-sulphur fuels on marine zooplankton communities. Aquatic Toxicology Volume 227, October 2020, 105592

Buongermino Pereira M, Österlund T, Eriksson KM, Backhaus T, Axelson-Fisk M and Kristiansson E. (2020). A comprehensive survey of integron-associated genes present in metagenomes. BMC Genomics 21:495. 

Ašmonaitė, Tivefälth, Westberg, Backhaus, Carney Almroth (2020). Microplastics as a vector for hydrophobic organic chemicals in fish: a comparison of two polymers and silica particles, using three different model compounds. Frontiers in Environmental Science. 8 (87).

Eriksson, KM.,  Sanli, K., Nilsson, RH., Eiler, A., Corcoll, N., Johansson, CH., Backhaus, T., Blanck, H., Kristiansson, E. Triclosan changes community composition and selects for specific bacterial taxa in marine periphyton biofilms in low nanomolar concentrations  Ecotoxicology volume 29pages10831094 (2020)  

Ahmed Tlili, Natàlia Corcoll, Åsa Arrhenius, Thomas Backhaus, Juliane Hollender, Nicolas Creusot, Bettina Wagner, Renata Behra (2020). Tolerance patterns in stream biofilms link complex chemical pollution to ecological Impacts. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2020, 54, 17, 10745–10753.

Backhaus,T. and  M. Wagner (2020)  Microplastics in the Environment: Much Ado about Nothing? A Debate in Global Challenges Volume4, Issue 6, Special Issue: Microplastics

Drakvik, E., Altenburger, R., Aoki, Y.,  Backhaus, T.,  Bahadori, T.,  Barouki, R., Brack, W., Cronin M. T. D., Demeneix B., Hougaard Bennekou S., van Klaveren J., Kneuer C., Kolossa-Gehring M., Lebret E., Posthuma L., Reiber L., Rider C., Rüegg J., Testa G., van der Burg B., van der Voet H., Warhurst A. M., van de Water B., Yamazaki K., Öberg M. (2020) Statement on advancing the assessment of chemical mixtures and their risks for human health and the environment. Environment International  2020 Jan;134:105267

Backhaus, T. (2020) Indeed, Science Is Inherently Political But Must Not Become Partisan. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Volume16, Issue1January 2020 

Muncke, J., Andersson, A., Backhaus, T. et al. Impacts of food contact chemicals on human health: a consensus statement. Environ Health 19, 25 (2020).

Bighiu, MA., Gottschalk, S., Arrhenius, Å., Goedkoop, W. (2020) Pesticide Mixtures Cause Short‐Term, Reversible Effects on the Function of Autotrophic Periphyton Assemblages. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry—Volume 39, Number 7—pp. 1367–1374


Alpizar, F., Thomas Backhaus, Nils Decker, Ingo Eilks, Natalia Escobar-Pemberthy, Peter Fantke, Ken Geiser, Maria Ivanova, Olivier Jolliet, Hong-Seok Kim, Kelvin Khisa, Haripriya Gundimeda, Daniel Slunge, Stephen Stec, Joel Tickner, David Tyrer, Niko Urho, Rob Visser, Mario Yarto, Vania Gomes Zuin, Gomes Zuin, Babajide Alo, Vera Barrantes, Anna Makarova, Yuan Chen, Mohamed Abdelraouf, Noriyuki Suzuki. (2019) Global Chemicals Outlook II. From Legacies to Innovative Solutions: Implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

Rudén, C., Backhaus, T., Bergman, P., Faust, M., Molander, L., Slunge, D. (2019)  Future chemical risk management - Accounting for combination effects and assessing chemicals in groups. SOU 2019:45.

Groh, KS., Backhaus, T.,  Carney Almroth, B., Geueke, B., Inostroza, P., Lennquist, A., Leslie, HA., Maffini, M., Slunge, D., Trasande, L., Warhurst, AM., Muncke, J. (2018) Review Overview of known plastic packaging-associated chemicals and their hazards Science of The Total Environment. Volume 651, Part 2, 15 February 2019, Pages 3253-3268

Backhaus, T., Brack, W., Van den Brink, P.J. et al. Assessing the ecological impact of chemical pollution on aquatic ecosystems requires the systematic exploration and evaluation of four lines of evidence. Environ Sci Eur 31, 98 (2019).

Brack, W., Ait-Aissa, S., Backhaus, T. et al. Strengthen the European collaborative environmental research to meet European policy goals for achieving a sustainable, non-toxic environment. Environ Sci Eur 31, 63 (2019).

Posthuma, L., Backhaus, T., Hollender, J. et al. Exploring the ‘solution space’ is key: SOLUTIONS recommends an early-stage assessment of options to protect and restore water quality against chemical pollution. Environ Sci Eur 31, 73 (2019).

Posthuma, L., Altenburger, R., Backhaus, T. et al. Improved component-based methods for mixture risk assessment are key to characterize complex chemical pollution in surface waters. Environ Sci Eur 31, 70 (2019).

Kortenkamp, A., Faust, M., Backhaus, T. et al. Mixture risks threaten water quality: the European Collaborative Project SOLUTIONS recommends changes to the WFD and better coordination across all pieces of European chemicals legislation to improve protection from exposure of the aquatic environment to multiple pollutants. Environ Sci Eur 31, 69 (2019).

Faust, M., Backhaus, T., Altenburger, R. et al. Prioritisation of water pollutants: the EU Project SOLUTIONS proposes a methodological framework for the integration of mixture risk assessments into prioritisation procedures under the European Water Framework Directive. Environ Sci Eur 31, 66 (2019).

Brack, W., Aissa, S.A., Backhaus, T. et al. Effect-based methods are key. The European Collaborative Project SOLUTIONS recommends integrating effect-based methods for diagnosis and monitoring of water quality. Environ Sci Eur 31, 10 (2019).

Altenburger, R., Brack, W., Burgess, R.M. et al. Future water quality monitoring: improving the balance between exposure and toxicity assessments of real-world pollutant mixtures. Environ Sci Eur 31, 12 (2019).

Coria, J. Political Economy of Listing of Substances of Very High Concern in the European REACH Regulation (2019) ISSN 1403-2473 (Print) ISSN 1403-2465 (Online) Working Paper in Economics No. 778

Coria, J.; Köhlin, G.; Xu, J. On the Use of Market-Based Instruments to Reduce Air Pollution in Asia (2019) Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 4895;

Sterner, T., Barbier, E.B., Bateman, I. et al. Policy design for the Anthropocene. Nature Sustainability volume 2, pages14–21(2019).

Slunge, D.; Alpizar, F. (2019) Market-Based Instruments for Managing Hazardous Chemicals: A Review of the Literature and Future Research Agenda. Sustainability 2019, 11, 4344.

Könemann, S.; Müller, Y.; Tschentscher, D.; Krauss, M.; Inostroza, P.A.; Brückner, I.; Pinnekamp, J.; Schiwy, S.; Hollert, H. Combination of In Situ Feeding Rate Experiments and Chemical Body Burden Analysis to Assess the Influence of Micropollutants in Wastewater on Gammarus pulex. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 883.


Backhaus, T (2018) Chemical pollution of the Baltic Sea – a brief overview and assessment. Baltic Rim Economics, 1/2018, 57-58

Backhaus, T., Scheringer, M., Wang, Z. (2018) Developing SAICM into a Framework for the International Governance of Chemicals Throughout Their Lifecycle: Looking Beyond 2020 Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 2018 Jul;14(4):432-433.

Backhaus T, Wagner M. Microplastics in the environment: Much ado about nothing? A debate. PeerJ Preprints. 2018 Mar 18.

Van den Brink, P. J., Boxall, A., Maltby, L. Brooks, B. W.,  Rudd, M. A., Backhaus, T. et al. (2018) Toward sustainable environmental quality: Priority research questions for Europe
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Volume 37, Number 9—pp. 2281–2295

Bonilla, J., J. Coria and T. Sterner. (2018). Technical Synergies and Trade-Offs Between Abatement of Global and Local Air Pollution. Environmental and Resource Economics, vol. 70(1), pages 191-221, May.

Boulund F., Buongermino MP., Jonsson V., Kristiansson E. (2018). Computational and Statistical Considerations in the Analysis of Metagenomic Data. Book chapter in Metagenomics: Perspectives, Methods, and Applications. Camebridge: Academic press.

Coria, J. and A. Autade (2018). Analyzing the Effects of the Candidate List of Substances of Very High Concern on Chemical Production in Sweden. Working Paper Series. Department of Economics. University of Gothenburg.

Coria, J (2018). The Economics of Toxic Substance Control– the REACH Directive. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Volume 12, Number 2.

Fantke, P., Aurisano, Bare, N. J., Backhaus, T., C. Bulle et al. (2018) Toward harmonizing ecotoxicity characterization in life cycle impact assessment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol 37, No 12, pp. 2955–2971,

Egardt, J., Larsen, M. M., Lassen, P. & Dahllöf, I. (2018). Release of PAHs and heavy metals in coastal environments linked to leisure boats. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 127, 664-671.

Gipperth L., Backhaus T. (2018) The Lack of Regulation of Chemical Mixtures and Its Legal Consequences in the Baltic Sea Area. In: Ringbom H. (eds) Regulatory Gaps in Baltic Sea Governance. MARE Publication Series, vol 18. Springer, Cham

Hassellöv, M., Gondikas, A., Mattsson, K., and Samuelsson, PO. (2018) Study of copper particle emissions in the harbor in Stenungsund. Report to Hav & Vattenmyndigheten

Hassellöv, M. (2018) Measurements of dispersion of microparticles from boat washing stations in Swedish leisure boat harbours. Report to Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management 2018. Undersökning av mikroskräp längs bohuslänska stränder och i sediment

Inostroza, P., Iván Vera-Escalona, Romy Wild, R., Norf, H., and Brauns, M. (2018) Tandem Action of Natural and Chemical Stressors in Stream Ecosystems: Insights from a Population Genetic Perspective Environ. Sci. Technol. 2018, 52, 14, 7962-7971  Environ. Sci. Technol. 2018,  52147962-7971

Karlsson, TM, Arneborg, L., Broström, G., Carney Almroth, B., Gipperth,L., and Hassellöv, M.  (2018) The accountability case of plastic pellet pollution. Marine Pollution Bulletin Vol 129 (1), P 52–60

Kraupner N., Ebmeyer S., Bengtsson-Palme J., Fick J., Kristiansson E., Flach CF., Larsson DGJ. (2018). Selective concentration for ciprofloxacin resistance in Escherichia coli grown in complex aquatic bacterial biofilms. Environmental international 116. 

Pereira MB., Wallroth M., Jonsson V., Kristiansson E. (2018). Comparison of normalization methods for the analysis of metagenomic gene abundance data. BMC genomics 19 (1), 274.

Sterner, T. and E. Robinson, (2018) Selection and Design of Environmental Policy Instruments, Handbook of Environmental Economics Vol. IV, ed by P Dasgupta, K Smith and S Pattanayak, Elsevier, ISBN: 978-0-444-53772-0

Verbruggen B., Gunnarsson L., Kristiansson E., Österlund T., Owen SF., Snape JR., Tyler CR, (2018). ECOdrug: a database connecting drugs and conservation of their targets across species, Nucleic Acids Research 46(D1).


Apitz, Sabine; Thomas Backhaus, Glenn Suter, Wayne Landis (2017). Science, antiscience and environmental decision making: A call to action. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 13(4), 557–559

Apitz S, Attanasio R, Backhaus T, Barnthouse L, Batley G, Brauman K, Brooks B, Chapman P, Griffin M, Kapustka L, Landis W, Leung K, Linkov I, Meador J, Olsen S, Tannenbaum L, Toll J, Suter G, Wenning R. 2017. Environmental policy recommendations for the new US President. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 13(1), 7-7.

Chapman, Jennifer; Boxall, Alistair; Porsch, Lucas; Vidaurre, Rodrigo; Backhaus, Thomas; Faust, Michael; Sinclair, Chris; Jones, Glyn; Howleg, Peter (2017). Investigation of methodologies for supporting the comparison of the benefits and environmental risks of veterinary medicinal products. Science of the Total Environment. 605, 692-701

Corcoll, Natàlia; Tobias Österlund, Lucas Sinclair, Alexander Eiler, Erik Kristiansson, Thomas Backhaus, K Martin Eriksson. 2017. Comparison of four DNA extraction methods for comprehensive assessment of 16S rRNA bacterial diversity in marine biofilms using high-throughput sequencing, FEMS microbiology letters 364 14

Gipperth L., Backhaus T. (2018) The Lack of Regulation of Chemical Mixtures and Its Legal Consequences in the Baltic Sea Area. In: Ringbom H. (eds) Regulatory Gaps in Baltic Sea Governance. MARE Publication Series, vol 18. Springer, Cham.

Gustavsson, Mikael; Jenny Kreuger, Mirco Bundschuh, Thomas Backhaus. 2017. Pesticide mixtures in the Swedish streams: environmental risks, contributions of individual compounds and consequences of single-substance oriented risk mitigation. Science of the Total Environment, 586, 658–665

 Gustavsson, Mikael; Jörgen Magnér, Bethanie Carney-Almroth, K. Martin Eriksson, Joachim Sturve, Thomas Backhaus. 2017. Chemical monitoring of Swedish coastal waters indicates common exceedances of environmental thresholds, both for individual substances as well as their mixtures. Marine Pollution Bulletin.

Gustavsson, Mikael; Andreas Hellohf, Thomas Backhaus. 2017. Evaluating the environmental hazard of industrial chemicals from data collected during the REACH registration process. Science of the Total Environment. Volume 586, 15 May 2017, Pages 658-665

Menz, Jakob; Ewelina Baginska, Åsa Arrhenius, Annette Haiβ, Thomas Backhaus, Klaus Kümmerer. 2017. Antimicrobial activity of pharmaceutical cocktails in STP effluent – An experimental and predictive approach to mixture risk assessment. Environmental Pollution. 0269-7491(17)31692-5

Muncke, Jane; Thomas Backhaus, Birgit Geueke, Maricel V. Maffini, Olwenn Viviane Martin, John Peterson Myers, Ana M. Soto, Leonardo Trasande, Xenia Trier, and Martin Scheringer. 2017. Scientific challenges in the risk assessment of food contact materials. Environmental Health Perspectives, 25(9):095001.

Rendahl, P. 2017. Kemikalieskatt i Sverige? Till vilket eller vilka ändamål? Festskrift till Christina Moëll. 2017. Utgiven av Juristförlaget i Lund. ISBN 978-91-544-0572-5.

Verbruggen, Bas; Lina Gunnarsson, Erik Kristiansson, Tobias Österlund, Stewart F Owen, Jason R Snape, Charles R Tyler. 2017. ECOdrug: a database connecting drugs and conservation of their targets, Nucleic acids research 46 D1 2017

Fifty central publications

[1] Regulatory perspectives on the toxicity of chemical cocktails in the environment

1) Kortenkamp, A., Backhaus, T., Faust, M. 2009. State of the Art Report on Mixture Toxicity. Report for the Directorate General for the Environment of the EU Commission.
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The report provides an overview of existing approaches for assessing the environmental impact of chemical cocktails, policy gaps and options as well as future challenges.

2) Backhaus, T., Faust, M. 2012. Predictive environmental risk assessment of chemical mixtures: a conceptual framework. Environmental Science & Technology, 46(5), 2564.
The paper provides the scientific methods necessary for improving the realism of chemical risk assessment by making it mixture-aware. Instruments and approaches especially for industrial chemicals are provided.

3) Backhaus, T. 2015. An additional assessment factor (MAF) – a suitable approach for improving the regulatory risk assessment of chemical mixtures?. Report for the Swedish Chemicals Agency, Report 5/2015.
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4) Backhaus, T., Faust, M., Kortenkamp, A. 2013. Cumulative Risk Assessment: a European perspective on the state of the art and the necessary next steps forward. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 9(4), 547.

5) Backhaus, T., Faust, M. 2010. Hazard and Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures under REACH: State of the Art, Gaps and Options for Improvement. PM for the Swedish Chemicals Agency, PM 3/2010.
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[2] Ecosystem Services

6) Fisher, B., Polasky, S., Sterner, T. 2011. Conservation and Human Welfare: Economic Analysis of Ecosystem Services. Environmental and Resource Economics, 48(2), 151.
This paper is an overview paper discussing the need for integration of economics into the area of biological conservation.

7) Backhaus, T., Snape, J., Lazorchak, J. 2012. The impact of chemical pollution on biodiversity and ecosystem services: the need for an improved understanding. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 8(4), 575.

[3] Boundaries for Chemicals in the Environment

8) Diamond, M., de Wit, C.A., Molander, S., Scheringer, M., Backhaus, T., Arvidsson, R., Bergman, Å., Hauschild, M., Holoubek, I., Lohmann, R., Persson, L., Suzuki, N., Vighi, M., Zetzsch, C. 2015. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution. Environment International, 78, 8–15.
Discusses the shortcomings of the current “open” governance system for chemicals that assumes that each new chemical is released in an otherwise unpolluted environment and explores the possibilities to set boundaries for chemical stress.

9) Scheringer, M., Backhaus, T., Bergman, Å., de Wit, C., Diamond, M., Hauschild, M., Holoubek, I., Lohmann, R., Molander, S., Arvidsson, R., Persson, L., Suzuki, N., Vighi, M. 2012. Planetary boundaries for chemical pollution. Organohalogen Compounds, 74, 1182-1185.

[4] Exposure Assessment and Modeling

10) Hammes, J., Gallego-Urrea, J.A., Hassellöv, M. 2013. Geographically distributed classification of surface water chemical parameters influencing fate and behavior of nanoparticles and colloid facilitated contaminant transport. Water Research, 47(14), 5350-5361.
The paper discusses how different hydrologies and water chemistries impact the fate and consequently the expected ecological impact of chemical pollution, explored using man-made nanoparticles as an example. It shows how environmental characteristics can be accounted for in an exposure assessment

11) Arvidsson, R., Molander, S., Sandén, B.A., Hassellöv, M. 2011. Challenges in exposure modeling of nanoparticles in aquatic environments. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 17(1), 245.
A new fate model to predict environmental concentrations of manufactured nanoparticles is presented. Such models are a principle option to pro-actively model chemical exposure in total.

12) Sobek, A., Gustafsson, Ö., Cornelissen, G., Tiselius, P. 2006. Passive partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls between seawater and zooplankton - a study comparing observed field distributions to equilibrium sorption experiments. Environmental Science and Technology, 40(21), 6703-6708.

13) Hassellöv, M., Readman, J., Ranville, J., Tiede, K. 2008. Nanoparticle analysis and characterization methodology in environmental risk assessment of engineered nanoparticles. Ecotoxicology, 17(5), 344.

14) Praetorius, A., Arvidsson, R., Molander, S., Scheringer, M. 2013. Facing complexity through informed simplifications: A research agenda for aquatic exposure assessment of nanoparticles. Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts, 15, 161-168.

15) Arvidsson, R., Molander, S., Sandén, B.A., Hassellöv, M. 2011. Challenges in exposure modelling of nanoparticles in aquatic environments. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 17(1), 245-262.

[5] Concepts and approaches for ecotoxicological risk assessment

16) Gunnarsson, L., Jauhiainen, A., Kristiansson, E., Nerman, O. and Larsson, D.G.J. 2008. Evolutionary Conservation of Human Drug Targets in Organisms used for Environmental Risk Assessments. Environmental Science and Technology, 42(15), 5807–5813.
The paper analyses how toxicological impacts of chemical pollution can be extrapolated between different environmental organisms, and the genetic basis therefore. This facilitates the selection of appropriate test organisms and hence improved strategies for environmental hazard assessment.

17) Moraes, R., Gerhard, P., Andersson, L., Sturve, J., Rausch, S., Molander, S. 2003. Establishing causality between exposure to metals and effects on fish. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 9(1), 149-169.
Establishing and validating the causal link between chemical pollution and observed ecotoxicological effects is one of the main challenges for developing ecosystem management strategies. The paper explores the possibilities and limitations for doing so using metal pollution as an example.

18) Brack, W., … , Backhaus, T. 2015. The SOLUTIONS project: Challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management. Science of the Total Environment, 503-504, 22-31.

19) Corsi, I., … , Hassellöv, M. 2014. Common strategies and technologies for the ecosafety assessment and design of nanomaterials entering the marine environment. ACS NANO, 8(10), 9694-9709.

20) Kristiansson, E., Österlund, T., Gunnarsson, L., Arne, G., Larsson, D.G.J. and Nerman, O. 2013. A novel method for cross-species analysis of gene expression analysis. BMC Bioinformatics, 14(70).

21) Guinée, J.B., de Koning, A., Pennington, D.W., Rosenbaum, R., Hauschild, M., Olsen, S.I., Molander, S., Bachmann, T.M., Pant, R. 2004. Bringing Science and Pragmatism together: A Tiered Approach for Modelling Toxicological Impacts in LCA. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 9(5), 320-326.

22) Palme, U., Lundin, M., Tillman, A.M., Molander, S. 2005. Sustainable development indicators for wastewater systems – researchers and indicator users in a co-operative case study. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 43(3), 293-311.

23) Molander, S., Lidholm, P., Schowanek, D., Recasens, M., Fullana i Palmer, P., Christensen, F.M., Guinée, J.B., Hauschild, M., Jolliet, O., Carlson, R., Pennington, D.W., Bachmann, T.M. 2004. OMNIITOX - operational life-cycle impact assessment models and information tools for practitioners. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 9(5), 282-286.

24) Moraes, R., Molander, S. 2004. A Procedure for Ecological Tiered Assessment of Risks (PETAR). Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 10(2), 349-371.

[6] Options for risk management, environmental policy and economics 

25) Revesz, R.L., Howard, P.H., Arrow, K., Goulder, L.H., Kopp, R.E., Livermore, M.A., Oppenheimer, M. and Sterner, T. 2014. Global warming: Improve economic models of climate change. Nature, 508, 173-175.
This paper argues in support of the notion that there is sufficient scientific consensus for at least a minimum value of the social cost of carbon – as an example on how to account for the costs of emissions into the environment.

26) Green, J., Sterner, T., & Wagner, G. 2014. A balance of bottom-up and top-down in linking climate policies. Nature Climate Change, 4(12), 1064-1067.
This paper argues that we need an international system for organizing permit trading areas, in addition to simple more localized systems.

27) Ambec, S. and Coria, J. 2013. Prices vs. Quantities with Multiple Pollutants, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 66(1): 123-140
This publication analyzes how multiple pollutants are regulated best. Instruments that are analyzed in detail include taxes and quantity restrictions such as standards and emission permits.

28) Ölund Wingqvist, G., Drakenberg, O., Slunge, D., Sjöstedt, M. Ekbom, A. 2012. The Role of Governance for Improved Environmental Outcomes. Report 6514. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm.
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The report demonstrates how improved attention to various governance and management aspects improves environmental outcomes

29) Coria, J. and Sterner, T. 2011. Natural Resource Management: Challenges and Policy Options. Annual Review of Resource Economics, 3, 203-230.

30) Arrow, K., Cropper, M. L., Gollier, C., Groom, B., Heal G. M., Newell, R. G., Nordhaus, W. D., Pindyck, R. S., Pizer, W. A., Portney, P., Sterner, T., Tol, R., Weitzman, M. L. 2013. Determining Benefits and Costs for Future Generations. Science, 6144, 349.

31) Sundblad, E., Grimvall, A., Gipperth, L., Morf, A. 2014. Structuring social data for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Marine Policy, 45, 1.

32) Gipperth, L. 2009. The legal design of the international and european union ban on tributyltin antifouling paint: Direct and indirect effects. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(1), S86-S95.

33) Ölund Wingqvist, G. and Slunge, D. 2013. Governance Bottlenecks and Policy Options for Sustainable Materials Management - A Discussion paper. United Nations Development Programme and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
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34) Coria, J. 2009. Taxes, Permits and the Diffusion of a New Technology, Resource and Energy Economics 31 (4): 249-271.

35) Slunge, D. and Sterner, T. 2001. Implementation of Policy Instruments for Chlorinated Solvents. European Environment, 11(5), 281-296.

[7] Taxation and international co-ordination

36) Coria, J., Backhaus, T., Gipperth, L., Sterner, T., Slunge, D. and Rendahl, P. 2015. Kemikalieskatter bidrar till en giftfri miljö. Svenska Dagbladet, 2015-07-01.
Link to the article
This opinion paper was written for the general public, in order to add to the ongoing discussion whether and to what extent environmental taxation is a helpful policy instrument for sustainable use of chemicals. It is also one of the first products of FRAM, developed in parallel to working on the full proposal.

37) Rendahl, P. 2009. Unilateral Measures to Avoid International Double (Non-) Taxation: VAT/GST vs. Direct Taxation Value Added Tax and Direct Taxation: Similarities and Differences. In Lange, et al. (Ed.), Value Added Tax and Direct Taxation (pp.1119-1144). Amsterdam: International Bureau of Fiscal Documentation.

38) Rendahl, P. 2013. EU VAT and Double Taxation: A Fine Line between Interpretation and Application. Intertax, 41(8/9), 450-461.

39) Rendahl, P. 2015. Mervärdesskattelagens ändamålsenlighet. SkatteNytt, 9, 648-660.

40) Rendahl, P. 2013. Omsättningslandsreglernas ändamål, konstruktion och tolkning i EU-mervärdesskatterätten. SkatteNytt, Akademisk Årsskrift 2013.

[8] Experimental assessment and evaluation of ecotoxicological and ecological impacts of chemical pollution

41) Arvidsson, R., Molander, S., Sandén, B.A. 2014. Assessing the Environmental Risks of Silver from Clothes in an Urban Area. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 20(4), 1008-1022.

42) Karle, I.M., Agrenius, S., Molander, S., Magnusson, K., Blanck, H., Dahl, B., Hall, O.J., Dahllöf, I. 2007. Verification of a benthic boxcosm system with potential for extrapolating experimental results to the field. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 353(2), 265-278.

43) Magnusson, K., Magnusson, M., Östberg, P., Granberg, M., Tiselius, P. 2007. Bioaccumulation of 14C-PCB 101 and 14C-PBDE 99 in the marine planktonic copepod Calanus finmarchicus under different food regimes, 63(1), 67-81.

44) Rutgersson, C., Gunnarsson, L., Kristiansson, E., Larsson, D.G.J. 2013. Oral exposure to industrial effluent with exceptionally high levels of drugs does not indicate acute toxic effects in rats. Environmental Science and Chemistry, 32(2), 577-584.

[9] Studies in the case-study areas

45) Moraes, R., Landis, W.G., Molander, S. 2002. Regional Risk Assessment of a Brazilian Rain Forest Reserve. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 8(7), 1779-1803.

46) Asker, N., Kristiansson, E., Albertsson, E., Larsson, D.G.J., Förlin, L. (2013). Hepatic transcriptome profiling indicates differential mRNA expression of apoptosis and immune related genes in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) caught at Göteborg harbor, Sweden. Aquatic Toxicology, 130-131, 58-67.

47) Waite, A. M., Gustafsson, Ö, Lindahl, O., Tiselius, P. 2005. Linking ecosystem dynamics and biogeochemistry: sinking fractionation of organic material in a Swedish fjord. Limnology and Oceanography, 50(2), 658-671.

48) Peterson, W.T., Arcos, D.F., McManus, G., Dam, H., Bellantoni, D., Johnson, T., Tiselius, P. 1988. The nearshore zone during coastal upwelling: Daily variability and coupling between primary production and secondary production off Central Chile. Progress in Oceanography, 20(1), 1-40.

49) Kiørboe, T., Tiselius, P., Mitchell-Innes, B.A., Hansen, J.L.S., Visser, A.W., Mari, X. 1998. Intensive aggregate formation with low vertical flux during an upwelling induced diatom bloom. Limnology and Oceanography, 43(1),

50) Tiselius, P. and Kiørboe, T. 1998. Colonization of diatom aggregates by the dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans. Limnolology and Oceanography, 43(1), 154-159.