TEaching and learning, students in a classroom.
Photo: Gunnar Jönsson

Phenomenography, Variation Theory and Learning Study

Research group
Active research
Project owner
Department of Pedagogical, Curricular and Professional Studies

Short description

Learning and teaching in institutional environments - preschool, school and higher education - related to understanding and teaching of specific contents is our common focus.

The research environment's work is based on four decades of research on learning based on the phenomenographic research tradition and its theoretical development – variation theory (see Marton & Booth, 1997; Marton & Tsui, 2004).

In the research environment, we work with questions about how to improve the opportunities for learning specific contents. We assume that there are certain necessary conditions for learning to take place. What these conditions are and how they can be created in different educational contexts and relative to what one wants to achieve is what we are interested in. The research approach has received much attention in both the academy and the teacher profession, both nationally and internationally.

Current projects

Research leader in the environment:

Researchers from the environment also participate in:

  • Examination of interactive science education at university level: A combination of variation theory and social semiotics regarding disciplinary representations and semiotic resources (2016-2020)

Background to Phenomenography and Variation Theory

Navigate to video: Interview with Ference Marton
Video (1:01:57)
Interview with Ference Marton