University of Gothenburg
Photo: Cecilia Koskinen

Nordic research network on infection control

Gothenburg University has by support from the Nordic Council of Ministers established a Nordic research network on infection control with yearly seminars in Gothenburg. The next seminar will be September 27-29, 2022. All researchers in infection control are welcome to present their project. The actual website will be further developed during March and April.

To make it easier to identify potential partners in the other countries we invite you to submit a short presentation of you or your group’s actual research. Please, fill in the PDF form to the right and send it back to Rune Andersson. After that we will make it available at the website for all in the research network. You are also welcome to send your questions and comments.

Internet Explorer or Google Chrome is recommended when filling out the form digitally!

Photo: Anna Lund Alexandersson
Photo: Cecilia Koskinen
Photo: Evelyn Järvsén

Researchers in the network

Airborne transmission 
Carl-Johan Fraenkel, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden

Clostridioides difficile: preventive strategies 
Jon Edman Wallér, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

Exploring behavioral factors influencing COVID-19 specific infection prevention and control measures in Finland.
Drivers of COVID19 vaccine hesitancy among  nursing staff in long-term care facilities in Finland. 
Anna-Leena Lohiniva Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland

SARS-CoV-2 in hospital air and airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in housholds.

Previous research on sources of norovirus in hospital air and potential airborne transmission of norovirus during hospial outbreaks. Current investigations in sources of airborne SARS-CoV-2. Evaluation of infection control efforts to prevent and mitigate hospital transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

Project leader: Jakob Löndahl, Carl-Johan Fraenkel

Group Members: Carl-Johan Fraenkel, Jakob Löndahl, Malin Alsved, Patrik Medstrand

Clostridioides difficile infections are among the most common infections associated with hospital care.


Project leader: Gunnar Jacobsson

Group members: Maria Werner, Kristina Rizzardi, Ingemar Qvarfordt, Johan Karp, Michael Toepfer.

Drivers of COVID19 vaccine hesitancy among  nursing staff in long-term care facilities in Finland  


The reasons for vaccine hesitancy, reluctance, or outright refusal are multifaceted and context-specific. This is a qualitative research study that aimed to understand factors influencing COVID-19  vaccine hesitancy and refusal among nursing staff in long-term care facilities in Finland. The study relies on the “ Theoretical domains framework” to understand behavior. 


 The data was collected through qualitative phone-based interviews among the nursing staff and the management in Spring 2021 and 2022. Respondents were recruited during COVID19 outbreak investigations and through infectious disease doctors of the municipalities. Analysis was based on thematic analysis using NVIVO. The sample included 15 nursing staff members and 20 managers.

The findings of the study will be used to develop context-specific vaccine demand creation plans and strategies for future epidemics and pandemics.  

Project leader: Anna-Leena Lohiniva

Group Members: Jaana-Marija Lehtinen, Hanna Nohynek, Outi Lyytikäinen  

Exploring behavioral factors influencing COVID-19 specific infection prevention and control measures in Finland

Healthcare worker (HCW) compliance with infection prevention and control (IPC) measures plays a critical role in preventing SARS-CoV-2 spread in healthcare settings. To ensure optimal adherence to COVID-19specific IPC practices, there is a need to understand the factors that influence them.


This two-phased study aims to identify and explain factors that influence the compliance to COVID-19 specific IPC measures among nursing staff in long-term care facilities (LTCF) in Finland. The first phase focused on exploring IPC measures generally whereas the second study is focusing on the use of personal protective equipment.


Both phases include a web-based survey and a qualitative research study based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF); a conceptual 14 domains that can explain behavior.   


The questions in the surveys covered background information of the respondent and LTCF as well as behavioral factors. The link to the anonymous surveys is distributed to the LTCFs through regional IPC experts and authorities. The outcome is modeled using both ordinary logistic regression and penalized ridge logistic regression using regrouped explanatory variables and the

The original more correlated set of explanatory variables, respectively.

Qualitative interviews

The in-depth interviews are conducted to explain factors that are identified in the survey as factors that influence compliance with IPC measures. A question guide is drafted with semi-structured questions. The subjects are recruited from those who participate in the survey.  Interviews are phone-based lasting from 30 minutes to 60 minutes each. Data is analysed thematically using NVIVO.  

Results of the phase one  

A total of 422 HCWs from 17/20 regions responded to the survey. The study findings suggested that three TDF domains influence the compliance with COVID-19 specific IPC measures: environmental factors and resources (inadequate staffing), beliefs about capabilities, and reinforcement (follow up and feedback of the management). The qualitative study included 20 HCWs consisting of nurses and assistant nurses who provided care in LTCFs during the pandemic. The study identified two themes that explain environmental factors and resources; lack of planning for emergencies; changing work responsibilities. Beliefs in capabilities were linked with knowledge, resources, and responsibilities, and reinforcement was linked with management absence and culture.     

The study provided insights into TDF domains that can be used to develop evidence-based behaviour change interventions and strategies to support HCW compliance with pandemic-specific IPC measures in LTCFs during future epidemics.

This is a two-phase study. The first phase was conducted from November 2020 to May 2021. The second one is being conducted from January 2022 to September 2022.  


Project leader: Anna-Leena Lohiniva

Group members: Jaana-Marija Lehtinen, Saija Toura, Jukka Olgren, Dinah Arifulla, Outi Lyytikäinen

Photo: Anna Lund Alexandersson
Photo: Johan Wingborg

Conferences 2022

Research Funds

University of Gothenburg
Grant and Innovation Office 

Swedish Research Council 
Research funds for studies on antibiotic resistance

The PAR-Foundation


If you know of additional funds possible to apply to for projects in infection control, please send an E-mail to Rune Andersson.