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Eelgrass meadow.
Photo: Göteborgs universitet
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ZORRO - Interdisciplinary research about management and restoration of eelgrass in Sweden

Research group
Active research
Project period
2011 - ongoing
Project owner
Department of Marine Sciences

Short description

Zorro is an interdisciplinary research program where marine ecologists, oceanographers, ecotoxicologists, environmental lawyers and environmental economists collaborate on issues related to the management and restoration of eelgrass ecosystems. The work is also carried out in close association with various authorities.

Among other things, Zorro has produced national guidelines for restoration and ecological compensation of eelgrass, a national action plan for eelgrass and over 40 scientific publications and popular science articles.

The Research Program Zorro

(Zostera restoration)

Interdisciplinary research about management and restoration of eelgrass in Sweden

Zorro is an interdisciplinary research program that started in 2011 at the University of Gothenburg. It has the goal to improve the management of coastal ecosystems with focus on eelgrass meadows along the Swedish west coast. The program constitutes a base for research collaboration between marine ecologists, oceanographers, ecotoxicologists, environmental legal scholars, and environmental economists about management and restoration of eelgrass ecosystems, and is carried out in close collaboration with the Country Administrative Board of Västra Götaland, and the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water management. The name ‘Zorro’ is constructed from the words ‘Zostera’ (the eelgrass genus) and ‘restoration’.

Today, more than 20 Swedish and international researchers and national and regional managers are collaborating in 6 different research projects coordinated by the program, with funds from national research councils, national authorities and the EU.  

The research program have produced national guidelines for restoration and ecological compensation of eelgrass, as well as a national action plan to protect eelgrass beds. The research has also resulted in over 40 scientific publications and popular science articles. Furthermore, Zorro conducts public outreach to spread information about eelgrass, why it is threatened and how it can be protected and restored. This work is carried out by researchers from the program giving lectures, through interviews in media, and through a number of films about eelgrass produced within the program.

Diver with eelgrass.
Diver planting eelgrass in Kosterhavet National Park.
Photo: Eduardo Infantes

The Research Group

Coordinators

Per Moksnes and Lena Gipperth

Researchers

Eduardo Infantes, Louise ErianderMarlene JahnkePer Jonsson, Scott Cole

PhD student

Kristjan Laas

Graduate students 2017 – 2020

Henrik Möller, Matilda Rasmusen, Nicolina Andersson, Lea Stolpmann, Astrid Fridell, Joakim Nilsson.

Zorro new logo

National and international partners

  • Ingemar Andersson and Mikael Haldin, Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management
  • Beatrice Alenius and Anders Olsson, Country Administrative Board of Västra Götaland
  • Charlotte Carlsson, Country Administrative Board of Skåne
  • Johnny Berglund, Country Administrative Board of Västerbotten 
  • Hanna Corell, DHI
  • Oscar Törnqvist, Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU)
  • Lena Bergström, Göran Sundblad, Ulf Bergström, Patrik Kraufvelin, SLU Aqua
  • Johan Eklöf and Sofia Wikström, Stockholms University
  • Erik Ytreberg, Chalmers University of Technology
  • Marianne Holmer och Mogens Flindt, University of Southern Denmark, Danmark
  • Christoffer Boström and Emilia Röhr, Åbo Akademi University, Finland
  • Tjisse van der Heide, Radboud University Nijmegen, Holland

News

(3/8 -21) Losses of eelgrass beds give rise to large emissions of carbon and nutrients

A new study published in the journal Ecosphere shows that losses of eelgrass meadows lead to sediment erosion and release of large amounts of carbon and nutrients.
Link to article:  
https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ecs2.3658 
Link to press release: 
https://www.gu.se/en/news/losses-of-eelgrass-beds-give-rise-to-large-emissions-of-carbon-and-nutrients

Eelgrass meadow under water
Old meadows in protected areas are extra important as they protect their large sediment stocks of carbon and nutrients from leakage.
Photo: Eduardo Infantes

(17/5-21) 80,000 eelgrass shoots planting started

The planting of over 80,000 eelgrass shoots has started at the sand-covered area at Lilla Askerön, in the municipality of Tjörn. The shoots will be planted by scuba divers and the work is expected to be completed within 2 months.

Eelgrass shoots in sand.
Eelgrass shoots planted at 25 cm intervals.
Photo: Eduardo Infantes

(12/3 -21) Eelgrass will be restored using 1800 tonnes of sand

The County Administrative Board of Västra Götaland and Gothenburg University are studying if coarse sand placed on top of the seafloor can help re-establish threatened eelgrass. The method will be tested at a small island in the municipality of Tjörn, 70 kilometers north of Gothenburg. This is the first time restoration of eelgrass using this sand coverage technique is  tested at large scale in Sweden.
Read more Eelgrass will be restored using 1800 tonnes of sand

Excavator placing sand on the seafloor
Excavator placing sand on the seafloor to reduce resuspension of bottom sediment.
Photo: Eduardo Infantes

Ongoing Research Projects

Preventing small-scale physical disturbances from causing large-scale turbidity and loss of coastal habitats (2020-2023)

Goal: To combine remote sensing, oceanographic modeling, ecological and legal studies to (1) try to identify thresholds ​​when small-scale physical disturbances causes large-scale resuspension of sediments with large ecological effects on e.g. eelgrass (2) assess if dumping of dredge material from recreational marinas constitute a major source for the ongoing spread of TBT and other contaminants to the environment, (3) develop a more sustainable management of the coastal environment that takes into account the cumulative effects of small-scale exploitation.
Project group: Per Moksnes (PI), Lena Gipperth, Louise Eriander (University of Gothenburg), Erik Ytreberg (Chalmers University of Technology), Oscar Törnqvist (SGU).
Funding: Swedish Research Council FORMAS

Overview of shoreline
Sediment resuspension inside two shallow bays in the municipality of Tjörn.
Photo: Eduado Infantes

Genetic population structure of Baltic Sea eelgrass – urgent information for conservation of a foundation species under climate change (2020-2024)

Goal: to integrate new knowledge about eelgrass genetics with modeling of connectivity and how eelgrass distribution and demography can change due to future climate change. The project will use different modeling techniques that can provide support for prioritizing when eelgrass meadows should be protected or restored, and assess the ability of different meadows to recover and adapt to future environmental changes.
Project group: Marlene Jahnke (PI), Per Jonsson, Kerstin Johannesson, Per Moksnes (University of Gothenburg ).
Funding: Swedish Research Council FORMAS

Eelgrass close up
A shallow eelgrass meadow from a moderately exposed site on the Swedish west coats.
Photo: Louise Eriander

Seagrass as a natural protection against beach erosion (2019-2022)

Goal: to combine small-scale experiments in the laboratory, large-scale field studies, and biophysical models to study how eelgrass beds affect large-scale transport of sand and beach erosion, and determine whether eelgrass restoration can be used as a measure to counter beach erosion, which expected to increase due to climate change. In collaboration with authorities, the results will be used to develop guidelines for the conservation and restoration of eelgrass along wave exposed coasts, where the meadows' protection against beach erosion can be included in coastal zone planning.
Project group: Eduardo Infantes (PI), Per Moksnes (University of Gothenburg ), Charlotte Carlsson (Country Administrative Board of Skåne).
Funding: Swedish Research Council FORMAS

Management and restoration of eelgrass (2018-2021)

Goal: (1) develop new measures that can improve the environment locally and enable restoration of eelgrass, e.g. sand-capping of the bottom and supplementary restoration of blue mussels, (2) carry out large-scale restoration of eelgrass, and (3) improve the protection of eelgrass in the county of Västra Götaland.
Project group: Beatrice Alenius (PI), Anders Olsson (Country Administrative Board of Västra Götalands län), Per Moksnes (PI, University of Gothenburg), Eduardo Infantes, Louise Eriander, Per Jonsson (University of Gothenburg), Mogens Flindt (University of Southern Denmark). 
Funding: The European Fisheries Fund (EHFF), Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management

Excavator placing sand on the seafloor
Sand-capping as a method to reduce resuspension of bottom sediment and improve the conditions for eelgrass growth.
Photo: Eduardo Infantes

Ecological compensation in the coastal environment ECOCOA (2018-2021)

Goal: to support the use of ecological compensation in coastal management. The aim is to produce a scientifically based guide for ways to offset losses of biodiversity and ecosystem services in connection with human activities.
Project group: Lena Bergström (PI), Göran Sundblad, Ulf Bergström, Patrik Kraufvelin (SLU Aqua), Per Moksnes (University of Gothenburg ), Scott Cole (EnviroEconomics Sweden), Linus Hasselström och Tore Söderqvist (Anthesis Enveco)
Funding: The Swedish environmental protection agency

Diver planting eelgrass
Diver planting eelgrass according to the single-shoot method.
Photo: Eduardo Infantes

Development and evaluation of satellite and drone-based methods for monitoring and mapping of marine coastal environments (2018-2020)

Goal: (1) further develop methods for using drone images in mapping and monitoring of the areal distribution of eelgrass and other shallow coastal environments, (2) further develop analysis methods for using satellite images for monitoring underwater vegetation and (3) develop of a web platform for satellite image analyzes of the distribution of vegetation along the coasts of Sweden.
Project group: Per Moksnes (PI), Eduardo Infantes, Mats Envall, Henrik Möller, Matilda Rasmusen (University of Gothenburg), Johnny Berglund, Carlos Paz von Friesen (Country Administrative Board of Västerbotten) Magnus Danbolt (Country Administrative Board of Kalmar), Lars Johansson (DHI). 
Funding: Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management

Eelgrass planting from above
Drone photo of a restoration effort in the Kosterhavet National Park.
Photo: Eduardo Infantes

Completed Research Projects

Cost-effective monitoring of coastal environments with the help of drones (2018-2019)

Goal: Develop technology and methods for using drones in mapping and monitoring of eelgrass and other shallow coastal environments.
Project group: Eduardo Infantes (PI), Per Moksnes (Univeristy of Gothenburg), Anita Tullrot (Country Administrative Board of Västra Götaland) 
Funding: Vinnova

Evaluation of suitable sites for eelgrass restoration (2017-2018)

Goal: Identify sites suitable for large-scale restoration of eelgrass in southern Bohuslän where large losses of eelgrass have occurred.
Project group: Per Moksnes (PI), Louise Eriander (University of Gothenburg ), Sandra Andersson (Marine monitorinng), Ewa Lawett, Anders Olsson (Country Administrative Board of Västra Götaland).
Funding: Country Administrative Board of Västra Götaland

Integrating seascape ecology and ecosystem services of eelgrass meadows for marine spatial management (2016-2018)

Goals: (1) assess connectivity between past and present eelgrass meadows using oceanographic particle models and population genetic methods to assess genetic diversity and identify vulnerable and valuable eelgrass areas, (2) assess historical changes of key ecosystem functions and services provided by eelgrass ecosystems, and estimate area-specific economic values using model results of cost of nutrient reduction measures, (3) develop a new model-approach that integrates the connectivity of eelgrass communities with area-specific values of the ecosystem services to identify the eelgrass beds that promote the largest and most resilient metacommunities, and the highest benefits to society.
Project group: Per Jonsson and Per Moksnes (PIs), Lars-Ove Loo and Marlene Jahnke (University of Gothenburg ), Jeanine Olsen (Department of marine benthic ecology & evolution, University of Groningen, The Netherlands), Berit Hasler och Janne Helin (Department of environmental science, Aarhus University, Denmark)
Funding: Swedish Research Council FORMAS

Towards science-based coastal management: Tipping points for seagrass conservation and restoration. (2015-2019)

Goals: (1) assess how much vegetation can be lost before an eelgrass system collapse, and how much should be re-vegetated to improve the water quality for seagrass recovery, using empirical flume and field studies in combination with biophysical models, (2) develop a management tools to predict critical thresholds required for seagrass conservation and restoration.
Project group: Eduardo Infantes (PI) and Per Moksnes (University of Gothenburg ), Marieke van Katwijk och Tjisse van der Heide (Radboud University Nijmegen), Tjeerd Bouma (NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research), The Netherlands.
Funding: Swedish Research Council FORMAS

Long-term carbon and nitrogen storage in Swedish eelgrass sediments (2015-2017)

Goals: assess the capacity of long-term carbon and nitrogen storage in the sediment of eelgrass meadows along the Swedish west coast, and the fate of the organic rich sediment when an eelgrass meadow is lost.
Project group: Per Moksnes (PI), Eduardo Infantes, Louise Eriander (University of Gothenburg), Christoffer Boström and Emilia Röhr (Åbo Akademi University, Finland), Marianne Holmer, University of Southern Denmark, Johan Eklöf (Stockholm University)

Developing management and restoration of eelgrass ecosystems (2014-2017)

Goals: (1) assess processes that prevent recovery and restoration of eelgrass, (2) develop oceanographic and economic model tools for eelgrass management, and (3) produce detailed handbooks and instructions videos about eelgrass restoration in Sweden.
Project group: Per Moksnes (PI), Lena Gipperth, Eduardo infantes, Scott Cole, Kristjan Lass, Louise Eriander and Per Jonsson (University of Gothenburg ) and Jonas Stenström (UntamedScience).
Funding: Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management

No-net-loss and restoration of marine habitats: Legal and ecological constraints and solutions (2012-2018)

Goals: (1) identify the legal and biological causes to the present loss of eelgrass and lack of recovery of eelgrass in Sweden, (2) assess the legal and ecological constraints and possibilities of compensatory mitigation, (3) develop cost-effective methods for restoration of eelgrass ecosystems in Sweden, and (4) develop an alternative preventive and reparative legislation that is based on non-degradation and restoration.
Project group: Lena Gipperth and Per Moksnes (PIs), Scott Cole, Eduardo Infantes, Kristjan Laas, Louise Eriander (University of Gothenburg )
Funding: Swedish Research Council FORMAS, Gothenburg University

Publications in English

1. Reports on management and restoration of eelgrass
2. Scientific publications
3. Graduate theses

1. Reports on management and restoration of eelgrass

1. Moksnes PO, Gipperth L, Eriander L, Laas K, Cole S, Infantes E. 2021. Handbook for restoration of eelgrass in Sweden - National guideline. Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, Report number 2021:5, 111 pages (excluding appendices). 

Appendix:
Appendix 1: Restoration of eelgrass with seeds in western Sweden
Appendix 2: Modification of the environment for eelgrass restoration
Appendix 3: Cost calculation for eelgrass restoration in western sweden

2. Scientific publications

1. Duffy JE, Reynolds PL, Boström C, Coyer JA, Cusson M Donadi S, Douglass JG, Eklöf JS, Engelen AH, Eriksson BK, Fredriksen S, Gamfeldt L, Gustafsson C, Hoarau G, Hori H, Hovel K, Iken K, Lefcheck JS, Moksnes P-O, Nakaoka M, O'Conno MI, Olsen JL, Richardson, JP, Ruesink JL, Sotka EE, Thormar J, Whalen MA, Stachowicz JJ. 2015. Biodiversity mediates top-down control in eelgrass ecosystems: A global comparative-experimental approachEcology Letters. 18:696-705. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12448

2. Cole GS, Moksnes P-O. 2016. Valuing multiple eelgrass ecosystem services in Sweden: fish production and uptake of carbon and nitrogenFrontiers in Marine Science. 2:121. http://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2015.00121

3. Eriander L, Infantes E, Olofsson M, Olsen JL, Moksnes P-O 2016. Assessing methods for restoration of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in a cold temperate regionJournal of Experimental Marine Biology Ecology. 479:76-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2016.03.005.

4. Infantes E, Eriander L, Moksnes P-O. 2016. Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) restoration on the west coast of Sweden using seedsMarine Ecology Progress Series. 546:31-45. http://doi.org/10.3354/meps11615

5. Laas K. 2016. Ekologisk kompensation och biologisk mångfald. Om behovet av rättslig utveckling och försiktighetNordisk miljörättslig tidskrift. 2:55-69 (in Swedish). 

6. Östman Ö, Eklöf J, Eriksson BK, Olsson J, Moksnes P-O, Bergström U. 2016. Meta-analysis reveals top-down processes are as strong as bottom-up effects in North Atlantic coastal food websJournal of Applied Ecology. 53:1138-1147. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12654

7. Infantes E, Crouzy C, Moksnes P-O. 2016. Seed predation by the shore crab Carcinus maenas: a positive feedback preventing recovery of eelgrass Zostera marina? PLOS ONE. 11:1-19. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168128

8. Turner LM, Bhatta R, Eriander L, Gipperth L, Johannesson K, Kadfak A, Karunasagar I, Karunasagar I, Knutsson P, Laas K, Moksnes P-O, Godhe A. 2017. Transporting ideas between marine and social sciences: Experiences from interdisciplinary research programs. Elementa-Science of the Antropocene. 5:14. http://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.148

9. Eriander L. 2017. Light requirements for successful restoration of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in a high latitude environment – acclimatization, growth and carbohydrate storageJournal of Experimental Marine Biology Ecology. 496C:37-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2017.07.010

10. Eriander L, Laas K, Bergström P, Gipperth L, Moksnes P-O. 2017. The effects of small-scale coastal development on the eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) distribution along the Swedish west coast – ecological impact and legal challengesOcean and Coastal Management. 148:182-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2017.08.005

11. Luhar M, Infantes E, Nepf H. 2017. Seagrass blade motion under waves and its impact on wave decay. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 122. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JC012731

12. Infantes E, Moksnes P-O. 2018. Eelgrass seeds harvesting: flowering shoots development and restoration in the Swedish west coast. Aquatic Botany. 144:9-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2017.10.002

13. Jahnke M, Jonsson PR, Moksnes P-O, Loo L-O, Nilsson Jacobi M, Olsen JL. 2018. Seascape genetics and biophysical connectivity modelling support conservation of the seagrass Zostera marina in the eastern North SeaEvolutionary Applications. 11:645–661. https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12589

14. Moksnes P-O, Eriander L, Infantes E, Holmer M. 2018. Local regime shifts prevent natural recovery and restoration of lost eelgrass beds along the Swedish west coastEstuaries and coastshttps://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-018-0382-y

15. Adams MP, Ghisalberti M, Lowe RJ, Callaghan P, Baird ME, Infantes E, O´Brien KRO. 2018. Water residence time controls the feedback between seagrass, sediment and light: Implications for restorationAdvances in Water Resources. 117:14-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2018.04.004

16. Ruesink JL, Stachowicz JJ, Reynolds P, Boström C, Cusson M, Douglass, J, Eklöf J, Engelen A, Hori M, Hovel K, Iken K, Moksnes P-O, Nakaoka M, O'Connor MI, Olsen J, Sotka E, Whalen M, Duffy JE. 2018. Form-function relationships in a marine foundation species depend on scale: a shoot to global perspective from a distributed ecological experimentOikos. 127:364-374. https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.04270

17. Reynolds P, Stachowicz JJ, Hovel K, Boström C, Boyer K, Cusson M, Eklöf JS, Engel FG, Engelen AH, Eriksson BK, Fodrie J, Griffin JN, Hereu C, Hori M, Hanley T, Ivanov M, Jorgensen P, Kruschel C, Lee K-S, McGathery K, Moksnes P-O, Nakaoka M, O’Connor MI, O’Connor N, Orth RJ, Rossi F, Ruesink J, Sotka E, Thormar J, Tomas F, Unsworth RKF, Whalen MA, Duffy JE. 2018. Latitude, temperature and habitat complexity predict predation pressure in eelgrass across the Northern HemisphereEcology. 99:29-35. http://doi:10.1002/ecy.2064

18. Röhr ME, Holmer M, Baum JK, Björk M, Chin D, L Chalifour, Cimon S, Cusson M, Dahl M, Deyanova D, Duffy JE, Eklöf JS, Geyer JK, Griffin JN, Gullström M, Hereu CM, Hori M, Hovel KA, Hughes AR, Jorgensen P, Kiriakopolos S, Moksnes P-O, Nakaoka M, O’Connor MO, Petersen B, Reiss K, Reynolds PL, Rossi F, Ruesink J, Santos R, Stachowcz JJ, Tomas F, Lee K-S, Unsworth RKF, Boström C. 2018. Blue carbon storage capacity of temperate eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadowsGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles, 32:1457-1475. https://doi.org/10.1029/ 2018GB005941

19. Dahl M, Infantes E, Clevesjö R, Linderholm HW, Björk M, Gullström M. 2018. Increased current flow enhances the risk of organic carbon loss from Zostera marina sediments: Insights from a flume experiment. Limnology and Oceanography, 63(6): 2793-2805. https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.11009

20. Pereda-Briones L, Infantes E, Orfila A, Tomas F, Terrados J. 2018. Dispersal of seagrass propagules: interaction between hydrodynamics and substratum typeMarine Ecology Progress Series, 593: 47-59. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps12518

21. Meysick L, Infantes E, Boström C. 2019. The influence of hydrodynamics and ecosystem engineers on eelgrass seed trapping. PLoS ONE 14(9): e0222020 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222020

22. Kindeberg T, Röhr E, Moksnes P-O. Boström C, Holmer M. 2019. Variation of carbon contents in eelgrass (Zostera marina) sediments implied from depth profilesBiology Letters 15: 20180831. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0831

23. Temmink RJM, Christianen MJA, Fivash GS, Angelini C, Boström C, Didderen K, Engel SM, Esteban N, Gaeckle JL, Gagnon K, Govers LL, Infantes E, van Katwijk MM, Kipson S, Lamers LPM, Lengkeek W, Silliman BR, van Tussenbroek BI, Unsworth RKF, Yaakub SM, Bouma TJ, van der Heide T. 2020. Mimicry of emergent traits amplifies coastal restoration success. Nature Communications, 11:3668 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17438-4

24. Marin-Diaz B, Bouma TJ, Infantes E. 2020. Role of eelgrass on bed-load transport and sediment resuspension under oscillatory flow. Limnology and Oceanography, 65(2): 426-436. https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.11312

25. Riera R, Vasconcelos J, Baden S, Gerhardt L, Sousa R, Infantes E. 2020. Severe shifts of Zostera marina epifauna: comparative study between 1997 and 2018 on the Swedish Skagerrak coast. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 158: 111434. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111434

26. Dahl M, Asplund ME, Deyanova D, Franco JN, Koliji A, Infantes E, Perry D, Björk M, Gullström M. High seasonal variability in sediment carbon stocks of cold-temperate seagrass meadows. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 125, e2019JGR005430. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JG005430

27. Dahl M, Asplund ME, Björk M, Deyanova D, Infantes E, Iseaus M, Nyström A, Gullstrom M. 2020. The influence of hydrodynamic exposure on carbon storage and nutrient retention in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows on the Swedish Skagerrak coast. Scientific Reports, 10:13666 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70403-5

28. Infantes E, Cossa D, Stankovik M, Panyawai J, Tuntiprapas P, Daochai C, Prathep A. 2020. Dugong reproductive behaviour in Koh Libong, Thailand: observations using drones. Aquatic mammals, 46(6): 603-608. https://doi.org/10.1578/AM.46.6.2020.603

29. Jahnke M, Moksnes P-O, Olsen JL. Serra, NS, Nilsson Jacobi M, Kuusemäe K, Corell H. Jonsson PR. 2020. Integrating genetics, biophysical, and demographic insights identifies critical sites for seagrass conservation. Ecological Applicationshttps://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2121

30. Infantes E, de Smit J, Tamarit E, Bouma TJ (2021) Making realistic wave climates in low-cost wave-mesocosms: a new tool for experimental ecology & biogeomorphology. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods. DOI: 10.1002/lom3.10425 Video-abstract: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MDzQXn64OQ4

31. Moksnes, P.-O.,  Röhr, M. E.,  Holmer, M.,  Eklöf, J. S.,  Eriander, L.,  Infantes, E., and  Boström, C..  2021.  Major impacts and societal costs of seagrass loss on sediment carbon and nitrogen stocksEcosphere  127):e03658. http://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.3658

3. Graduate theses

Doctoral thesis

Eriander L. 2016. Restoration and management of eelgrass (Zostera marina) on the west coast of Sweden. Doctoral thesis. Department of marine sciences, Gothenburg University.

Master thesis

Stolpmann L. 2020. Effect of sediment capping on turbidity and implications for seagrass growth. Master thesis. Department of marine sciences, Gothenburg University.

Bachelor theses

1. Nilsson J. 2017. Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) growth under the effect of deposited sediment on the leaves. Bachelor thesis. Department of marine sciences, Gothenburg University.

2. Fridell A. 2019. The effect of sediment deposition on sulfide intrusion in eelgrass. Bachelor theses. Department of marine sciences, Gothenburg University.

3. Andersson N. 2019. Sand-capping as a method to reduce sediment resuspension and improve eelgrass restoration in Sweden. Bachelor theses. Department of marine sciences, Gothenburg University.

4. Möller H. 2019. Effect of wave events and sediment dynamics: sediment resuspension in Askerön. Bachelor theses. Department of marine sciences, Gothenburg University.

Films in English

Eduardo talks about the restoration of eelgrass in Koster 2020
University of Gothenburg production

Drone observations of mating dugongs in Thailand
Research by Eduardo Infantes (read more here)

Handbook for eelgrass restoration (PDF)

Video handbook for eelgrass restoration

The video handbook is a complement to the report "Handbook for restoration of eelgrass in Sweden" (Moksnes et al. 2016) which in three films summarizes the important parts of restoration: Site Selection, Large-scale Harvesting and Planting, and Monitoring and Evaluation.

Video (1:32)
Eelgrass restoration – Introduction
Video (5:56)
Eelgrass restoration – Large-scale Harvesting and Planting
Video (11:37)
Eelgrass restoration – Site Selection
Video (4:13)
Eelgrass restoration – Monitoring and Evaluation