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Eelgrass meadow.
Photo: Göteborgs universitet
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ZORRO - Interdisciplinary research about management and restoration of eelgrass in Sweden

Research group
Active research
Project period
2011 - ongoing
Project owner
Department of Marine Sciences

Short description

Zorro is an interdisciplinary research program where marine ecologists, oceanographers, ecotoxicologists, environmental lawyers and environmental economists collaborate on issues related to the management and restoration of eelgrass ecosystems. The work is also carried out in close association with various authorities.

Among other things, Zorro has produced national guidelines for restoration and ecological compensation of eelgrass, a national action plan for eelgrass and over 40 scientific publications and popular science articles.

The Research Program Zorro

(Zostera restoration)

Interdisciplinary research about management and restoration of eelgrass in Sweden

Zorro is an interdisciplinary research program that started in 2011 at the University of Gothenburg. It has the goal to improve the management of coastal ecosystems with focus on eelgrass meadows along the Swedish west coast. The program constitutes a base for research collaboration between marine ecologists, oceanographers, ecotoxicologists, environmental legal scholars, and environmental economists about management and restoration of eelgrass ecosystems, and is carried out in close collaboration with the Country Administrative Board of Västra Götaland, and the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water management. The name ‘Zorro’ is constructed from the words ‘Zostera’ (the eelgrass genus) and ‘restoration’.

Today, more than 20 Swedish and international researchers and national and regional managers are collaborating in 6 different research projects coordinated by the program, with funds from national research councils, national authorities and the EU.  

The research program have produced national guidelines for restoration and ecological compensation of eelgrass, as well as a national action plan to protect eelgrass beds. The research has also resulted in over 40 scientific publications and popular science articles. Furthermore, Zorro conducts public outreach to spread information about eelgrass, why it is threatened and how it can be protected and restored. This work is carried out by researchers from the program giving lectures, through interviews in media, and through a number of films about eelgrass produced within the program.

Diver with eelgrass.
Diver planting eelgrass in Kosterhavet National Park.
Photo: Eduardo Infantes

The Research Group

Coordinators

Per Moksnes and Lena Gipperth

Researchers

Eduardo Infantes, Louise ErianderMarlene JahnkePer Jonsson, Ellika Faust, Scott Cole, Mats Envall.

PhD student

Kristjan Laas, Stefanie Ries, Johan Severinson

Project assistants (2022)

Matilda Rasmussen, Henrik Möller, Karl Karlsson

 

Graduate students

2022

Maru Bernal, Eva Pagan, Alexander Larsson

2017 – 2021

Henrik Möller, Matilda Rasmussen, Nicolina Andersson, Lea Stolpmann, Astrid Fridell, Joakim Nilsson, Ida Johansson, Maja Billman, Aze Peeters, Niklas Niemi.

Zorro new logo

National and international partners

  • Ingemar Andersson and Mikael Haldin, Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management
  • Beatrice Alenius and Anders Olsson, Country Administrative Board of Västra Götaland
  • Charlotte Carlsson, Country Administrative Board of Skåne
  • Johnny Berglund, Country Administrative Board of Västerbotten 
  • Hanna Corell, DHI
  • Oscar Törnqvist, Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU)
  • Lena Bergström, Göran Sundblad, Ulf Bergström, Patrik Kraufvelin, SLU Aqua
  • Johan Eklöf and Sofia Wikström, Stockholms University
  • Erik Ytreberg, Chalmers University of Technology
  • Marianne Holmer och Mogens Flindt, University of Southern Denmark, Danmark
  • Christoffer Boström and Emilia Röhr, Åbo Akademi University, Finland
  • Tjisse van der Heide, Radboud University Nijmegen, Holland

News

 

(30/9 2022) Successful sand capping and eelgrass restoration at Lilla Askerön

In the spring of 2021, one hectare of clay bottom was covered with 1,800 tons of sand in a bay at Lilla Askerön in Bohuslän, in collaboration with the County Administrative Board of Västra Götaland, to stabilize the bottom, reduce sediment resuspension and improve light conditions for eelgrass. In the summer, 80,000 shoots of eelgrass were subsequently planted on the sand-covered area in an attempt to restore eelgrass to the bay.

Sampling in the fall of 2022 shows that the eelgrass survived and growth exceeded expectations, where the number of shoots increased tenfold to over 860,000 shoots. This is the largest successful eelgrass restoration in Scandinavian waters and the first time sand cover is used to enable a restoration.

Read news item from the University of Gothenburg

Happy researchers in wet suits.
Happy Zorro-team after a successful sampling at Lilla Askerön.

(7/9-22) Eelgrass's genetics determine its survival

The genetic history of eelgrass can play a greater role than the local environment regarding the morphology of the plants and the biomass of the associated plant and animal community. This is shown in a new large-scale study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) that included 50 sites around the northern hemisphere in which researchers from Zorro led the Swedish part of the study.

Read the University of Gothenburg's press release
Read the article in PNAS

Researchers under water with eelgrass.
Sampling of eelgrass for genetic studies.

(12/7-22) New monitoring of eelgrass in Bohuslän with drones and genetic methods

In collaboration with the County Board of Västerbotten and Västra Götaland, Zorro is developing a new type of monitoring where flying drones and drop video are used to estimate the areal distribution of eelgrass meadows, in combination with genetic methods to estimate genetic diversity, connectivity and possibilities for the eelgrass to adapt to e.g. ongoing climate change. Over 100 bays with eelgrass will be mapped by the Zorro team during the summer.

 

Researcher with drone.
Sampling with flying drones to monitor the areal distribution of eelgrass.

(13/12 -21) Promising results for eelgrass restoration using sand-capping

During the summer, divers planted 80,000 eelgrass shoots in the sand. The follow-up study now shows that the eelgrass shoots have survived and reproduced to a total of 176,400 shoots. Also test sites outside the sand-capped area show a good survival rate.
Read more: Promising results for eelgrass restoration using sand-capping

Drone photo of sand-capping area
The sand-capping seems to have improved the light conditions in the bay enough for the eelgrass to be able to grow also outside the sand.
Photo: Eduardo Infantes

(3/8 -21) Losses of eelgrass beds give rise to large emissions of carbon and nutrients

A new study published in the journal Ecosphere shows that losses of eelgrass meadows lead to sediment erosion and release of large amounts of carbon and nutrients.
Link to article:  
https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ecs2.3658 
Link to press release: 
https://www.gu.se/en/news/losses-of-eelgrass-beds-give-rise-to-large-emissions-of-carbon-and-nutrients

Eelgrass meadow under water
Old meadows in protected areas are extra important as they protect their large sediment stocks of carbon and nutrients from leakage.
Photo: Eduardo Infantes

(17/5-21) 80,000 eelgrass shoots planting started

The planting of over 80,000 eelgrass shoots has started at the sand-covered area at Lilla Askerön, in the municipality of Tjörn. The shoots will be planted by scuba divers and the work is expected to be completed within 2 months.

Eelgrass shoots in sand.
Eelgrass shoots planted at 25 cm intervals.
Photo: Eduardo Infantes

(12/3 -21) Eelgrass will be restored using 1800 tonnes of sand

The County Administrative Board of Västra Götaland and Gothenburg University are studying if coarse sand placed on top of the seafloor can help re-establish threatened eelgrass. The method will be tested at a small island in the municipality of Tjörn, 70 kilometers north of Gothenburg. This is the first time restoration of eelgrass using this sand coverage technique is  tested at large scale in Sweden.
Read more Eelgrass will be restored using 1800 tonnes of sand

Excavator placing sand on the seafloor
Excavator placing sand on the seafloor to reduce resuspension of bottom sediment.
Photo: Eduardo Infantes

Ongoing Research Projects

Preventing small-scale physical disturbances from causing large-scale turbidity and loss of coastal habitats (2020-2023)

Goal: To combine remote sensing, oceanographic modeling, ecological and legal studies to (1) try to identify thresholds ​​when small-scale physical disturbances causes large-scale resuspension of sediments with large ecological effects on e.g. eelgrass (2) assess if dumping of dredge material from recreational marinas constitute a major source for the ongoing spread of TBT and other contaminants to the environment, (3) develop a more sustainable management of the coastal environment that takes into account the cumulative effects of small-scale exploitation.
Project group: Per Moksnes (PI), Lena Gipperth, Louise Eriander (University of Gothenburg), Erik Ytreberg (Chalmers University of Technology), Oscar Törnqvist (SGU).
Funding: Swedish Research Council FORMAS

Overview of shoreline
Sediment resuspension inside two shallow bays in the municipality of Tjörn.
Photo: Eduado Infantes

Genetic population structure of Baltic Sea eelgrass – urgent information for conservation of a foundation species under climate change (2020-2024)

Goal: to integrate new knowledge about eelgrass genetics with modeling of connectivity and how eelgrass distribution and demography can change due to future climate change. The project will use different modeling techniques that can provide support for prioritizing when eelgrass meadows should be protected or restored, and assess the ability of different meadows to recover and adapt to future environmental changes.
Project group: Marlene Jahnke (PI), Per Jonsson, Kerstin Johannesson, Per Moksnes (University of Gothenburg ).
Funding: Swedish Research Council FORMAS

Eelgrass close up
A shallow eelgrass meadow from a moderately exposed site on the Swedish west coats.
Photo: Louise Eriander

Seagrass as a natural protection against beach erosion (2019-2022)

Goal: to combine small-scale experiments in the laboratory, large-scale field studies, and biophysical models to study how eelgrass beds affect large-scale transport of sand and beach erosion, and determine whether eelgrass restoration can be used as a measure to counter beach erosion, which expected to increase due to climate change. In collaboration with authorities, the results will be used to develop guidelines for the conservation and restoration of eelgrass along wave exposed coasts, where the meadows' protection against beach erosion can be included in coastal zone planning.
Project group: Eduardo Infantes (PI), Per Moksnes (University of Gothenburg ), Charlotte Carlsson (Country Administrative Board of Skåne).
Funding: Swedish Research Council FORMAS

Development and evaluation of satellite and drone-based methods for monitoring and mapping of marine coastal environments (2018-2022)

Goal: (1) further develop methods for using drone images in mapping and monitoring of the areal distribution of eelgrass and other shallow coastal environments, (2) further develop analysis methods for using satellite images for monitoring underwater vegetation and (3) develop of a web platform for satellite image analyzes of the distribution of vegetation along the coasts of Sweden.
Project group: Per Moksnes (PI), Eduardo Infantes, Mats Envall, Henrik Möller, Matilda Rasmusen (University of Gothenburg), Johnny Berglund, Carlos Paz von Friesen (Country Administrative Board of Västerbotten) Magnus Danbolt (Country Administrative Board of Kalmar), Lars Johansson (DHI). 
Funding: Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management

Eelgrass planting from above
Drone photo of a restoration effort in the Kosterhavet National Park.
Photo: Eduardo Infantes

Completed Research Projects

Management and restoration of eelgrass (2018-2021)

Goal: (1) develop new measures that can improve the environment locally and enable restoration of eelgrass, e.g. sand-capping of the bottom and supplementary restoration of blue mussels, (2) carry out large-scale restoration of eelgrass, and (3) improve the protection of eelgrass in the county of Västra Götaland.
Project group: Beatrice Alenius (PI), Anders Olsson (Country Administrative Board of Västra Götalands län), Per Moksnes (PI, University of Gothenburg), Eduardo Infantes, Louise Eriander, Per Jonsson (University of Gothenburg), Mogens Flindt (University of Southern Denmark). 
Funding: The European Fisheries Fund (EHFF), Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management

Excavator placing sand on the seafloor
Sand-capping as a method to reduce resuspension of bottom sediment and improve the conditions for eelgrass growth.
Photo: Eduardo Infantes

Ecological compensation in the coastal environment ECOCOA (2018-2021)

Goal: to support the use of ecological compensation in coastal management. The aim is to produce a scientifically based guide for ways to offset losses of biodiversity and ecosystem services in connection with human activities.
Project group: Lena Bergström (PI), Göran Sundblad, Ulf Bergström, Patrik Kraufvelin (SLU Aqua), Per Moksnes (University of Gothenburg ), Scott Cole (EnviroEconomics Sweden), Linus Hasselström och Tore Söderqvist (Anthesis Enveco)
Funding: The Swedish environmental protection agency

Diver planting eelgrass
Diver planting eelgrass according to the single-shoot method.
Photo: Eduardo Infantes

Cost-effective monitoring of coastal environments with the help of drones (2018-2019)

Goal: Develop technology and methods for using drones in mapping and monitoring of eelgrass and other shallow coastal environments.
Project group: Eduardo Infantes (PI), Per Moksnes (Univeristy of Gothenburg), Anita Tullrot (Country Administrative Board of Västra Götaland) 
Funding: Vinnova

Evaluation of suitable sites for eelgrass restoration (2017-2018)

Goal: Identify sites suitable for large-scale restoration of eelgrass in southern Bohuslän where large losses of eelgrass have occurred.
Project group: Per Moksnes (PI), Louise Eriander (University of Gothenburg ), Sandra Andersson (Marine monitorinng), Ewa Lawett, Anders Olsson (Country Administrative Board of Västra Götaland).
Funding: Country Administrative Board of Västra Götaland

Integrating seascape ecology and ecosystem services of eelgrass meadows for marine spatial management (2016-2018)

Goals: (1) assess connectivity between past and present eelgrass meadows using oceanographic particle models and population genetic methods to assess genetic diversity and identify vulnerable and valuable eelgrass areas, (2) assess historical changes of key ecosystem functions and services provided by eelgrass ecosystems, and estimate area-specific economic values using model results of cost of nutrient reduction measures, (3) develop a new model-approach that integrates the connectivity of eelgrass communities with area-specific values of the ecosystem services to identify the eelgrass beds that promote the largest and most resilient metacommunities, and the highest benefits to society.
Project group: Per Jonsson and Per Moksnes (PIs), Lars-Ove Loo and Marlene Jahnke (University of Gothenburg ), Jeanine Olsen (Department of marine benthic ecology & evolution, University of Groningen, The Netherlands), Berit Hasler och Janne Helin (Department of environmental science, Aarhus University, Denmark)
Funding: Swedish Research Council FORMAS

Towards science-based coastal management: Tipping points for seagrass conservation and restoration. (2015-2019)

Goals: (1) assess how much vegetation can be lost before an eelgrass system collapse, and how much should be re-vegetated to improve the water quality for seagrass recovery, using empirical flume and field studies in combination with biophysical models, (2) develop a management tools to predict critical thresholds required for seagrass conservation and restoration.
Project group: Eduardo Infantes (PI) and Per Moksnes (University of Gothenburg ), Marieke van Katwijk och Tjisse van der Heide (Radboud University Nijmegen), Tjeerd Bouma (NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research), The Netherlands.
Funding: Swedish Research Council FORMAS

Long-term carbon and nitrogen storage in Swedish eelgrass sediments (2015-2017)

Goals: assess the capacity of long-term carbon and nitrogen storage in the sediment of eelgrass meadows along the Swedish west coast, and the fate of the organic rich sediment when an eelgrass meadow is lost.
Project group: Per Moksnes (PI), Eduardo Infantes, Louise Eriander (University of Gothenburg), Christoffer Boström and Emilia Röhr (Åbo Akademi University, Finland), Marianne Holmer, University of Southern Denmark, Johan Eklöf (Stockholm University)

Developing management and restoration of eelgrass ecosystems (2014-2017)

Goals: (1) assess processes that prevent recovery and restoration of eelgrass, (2) develop oceanographic and economic model tools for eelgrass management, and (3) produce detailed handbooks and instructions videos about eelgrass restoration in Sweden.
Project group: Per Moksnes (PI), Lena Gipperth, Eduardo infantes, Scott Cole, Kristjan Lass, Louise Eriander and Per Jonsson (University of Gothenburg ) and Jonas Stenström (UntamedScience).
Funding: Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management

No-net-loss and restoration of marine habitats: Legal and ecological constraints and solutions (2012-2018)

Goals: (1) identify the legal and biological causes to the present loss of eelgrass and lack of recovery of eelgrass in Sweden, (2) assess the legal and ecological constraints and possibilities of compensatory mitigation, (3) develop cost-effective methods for restoration of eelgrass ecosystems in Sweden, and (4) develop an alternative preventive and reparative legislation that is based on non-degradation and restoration.
Project group: Lena Gipperth and Per Moksnes (PIs), Scott Cole, Eduardo Infantes, Kristjan Laas, Louise Eriander (University of Gothenburg )
Funding: Swedish Research Council FORMAS, Gothenburg University

Publications in English

1. Reports on management and restoration of eelgrass
2. Scientific publications
3. Graduate theses

1. Reports on management and restoration of eelgrass

1. Moksnes PO, Gipperth L, Eriander L, Laas K, Cole S, Infantes E. 2021. Handbook for restoration of eelgrass in Sweden - National guideline. Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, Report number 2021:5, 111 pages (excluding appendices). 

Appendix:
Appendix 1: Restoration of eelgrass with seeds in western Sweden
Appendix 2: Modification of the environment for eelgrass restoration
Appendix 3: Cost calculation for eelgrass restoration in western sweden

2. Scientific publications

1. Duffy JE, Reynolds PL, Boström C, Coyer JA, Cusson M Donadi S, Douglass JG, Eklöf JS, Engelen AH, Eriksson BK, Fredriksen S, Gamfeldt L, Gustafsson C, Hoarau G, Hori H, Hovel K, Iken K, Lefcheck JS, Moksnes P-O, Nakaoka M, O'Conno MI, Olsen JL, Richardson, JP, Ruesink JL, Sotka EE, Thormar J, Whalen MA, Stachowicz JJ. 2015. Biodiversity mediates top-down control in eelgrass ecosystems: A global comparative-experimental approach. Ecology Letters. 18:696-705. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12448

2. Cole GS, Moksnes P-O. 2016. Valuing multiple eelgrass ecosystem services in Sweden: fish production and uptake of carbon and nitrogen. Frontiers in Marine Science. 2:121. http://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2015.00121

3. Eriander L, Infantes E, Olofsson M, Olsen JL, Moksnes P-O 2016. Assessing methods for restoration of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in a cold temperate region. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology Ecology. 479:76-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2016.03.005.

4. Infantes E, Eriander L, Moksnes P-O. 2016. Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) restoration on the west coast of Sweden using seeds. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 546:31-45. http://doi.org/10.3354/meps11615

5. Laas K. 2016. Ekologisk kompensation och biologisk mångfald. Om behovet av rättslig utveckling och försiktighet. Nordisk miljörättslig tidskrift. 2:55-69.

6. Östman Ö, Eklöf J, Eriksson BK, Olsson J, Moksnes P-O, Bergström U. 2016. Meta-analysis reveals top-down processes are as strong as bottom-up effects in North Atlantic coastal food webs. Journal of Applied Ecology. 53:1138-1147. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12654

7. Infantes E, Crouzy C, Moksnes P-O. 2016. Seed predation by the shore crab Carcinus maenas: a positive feedback preventing recovery of eelgrass Zostera marina? PLOS ONE. 11:1-19. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168128

8. Turner LM, Bhatta R, Eriander L, Gipperth L, Johannesson K, Kadfak A, Karunasagar I, Karunasagar I, Knutsson P, Laas K, Moksnes P-O, Godhe A. 2017. Transporting ideas between marine and social sciences: Experiences from interdisciplinary research programs. Elementa-Science of the Antropocene. 5:14. http://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.148

9. Eriander L. 2017. Light requirements for successful restoration of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in a high latitude environment – acclimatization, growth and carbohydrate storage. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology Ecology. 496C:37-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2017.07.010

10. Eriander L, Laas K, Bergström P, Gipperth L, Moksnes P-O. 2017. The effects of small-scale coastal development on the eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) distribution along the Swedish west coast – ecological impact and legal challenges. Ocean and Coastal Management. 148:182-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2017.08.005

11. Luhar M, Infantes E, Nepf H. 2017. Seagrass blade motion under waves and its impact on wave decay. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 122. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JC012731

12. Infantes E, Moksnes P-O. 2018. Eelgrass seeds harvesting: flowering shoots development and restoration in the Swedish west coast. Aquatic Botany. 144:9-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2017.10.002

13. Jahnke M, Jonsson PR, Moksnes P-O, Loo L-O, Nilsson Jacobi M, Olsen JL. 2018. Seascape genetics and biophysical connectivity modelling support conservation of the seagrass Zostera marina in the eastern North Sea. Evolutionary Applications. 11:645–661. https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12589

14. Moksnes P-O, Eriander L, Infantes E, Holmer M. 2018. Local regime shifts prevent natural recovery and restoration of lost eelgrass beds along the Swedish west coast. Estuaries and coasts. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-018-0382-y

15. Adams MP, Ghisalberti M, Lowe RJ, Callaghan P, Baird ME, Infantes E, O´Brien KRO. 2018. Water residence time controls the feedback between seagrass, sediment and light: Implications for restoration. Advances in Water Resources. 117:14-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2018.04.004

16. Ruesink JL, Stachowicz JJ, Reynolds P, Boström C, Cusson M, Douglass, J, Eklöf J, Engelen A, Hori M, Hovel K, Iken K, Moksnes P-O, Nakaoka M, O'Connor MI, Olsen J, Sotka E, Whalen M, Duffy JE. 2018. Form-function relationships in a marine foundation species depend on scale: a shoot to global perspective from a distributed ecological experiment. Oikos. 127:364-374. https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.04270

17. Reynolds P, Stachowicz JJ, Hovel K, Boström C, Boyer K, Cusson M, Eklöf JS, Engel FG, Engelen AH, Eriksson BK, Fodrie J, Griffin JN, Hereu C, Hori M, Hanley T, Ivanov M, Jorgensen P, Kruschel C, Lee K-S, McGathery K, Moksnes P-O, Nakaoka M, O’Connor MI, O’Connor N, Orth RJ, Rossi F, Ruesink J, Sotka E, Thormar J, Tomas F, Unsworth RKF, Whalen MA, Duffy JE. 2018. Latitude, temperature and habitat complexity predict predation pressure in eelgrass across the Northern Hemisphere. Ecology. 99:29-35. http://doi:10.1002/ecy.2064

18. Röhr ME, Holmer M, Baum JK, Björk M, Chin D, L Chalifour, Cimon S, Cusson M, Dahl M, Deyanova D, Duffy JE, Eklöf JS, Geyer JK, Griffin JN, Gullström M, Hereu CM, Hori M, Hovel KA, Hughes AR, Jorgensen P, Kiriakopolos S, Moksnes P-O, Nakaoka M, O’Connor MO, Petersen B, Reiss K, Reynolds PL, Rossi F, Ruesink J, Santos R, Stachowcz JJ, Tomas F, Lee K-S, Unsworth RKF, Boström C. 2018. Blue carbon storage capacity of temperate eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 32:1457-1475. https://doi.org/10.1029/ 2018GB005941

19. Dahl M, Infantes E, Clevesjö R, Linderholm HW, Björk M, Gullström M. 2018. Increased current flow enhances the risk of organic carbon loss from Zostera marina sediments: Insights from a flume experiment. Limnology and Oceanography, 63(6): 2793-2805. https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.11009

20. Pereda-Briones L, Infantes E, Orfila A, Tomas F, Terrados J. 2018. Dispersal of seagrass propagules: interaction between hydrodynamics and substratum type. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 593: 47-59. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps12518

21. Meysick L, Infantes E, Boström C. 2019. The influence of hydrodynamics and ecosystem engineers on eelgrass seed trapping. PLoS ONE 14(9): e0222020 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222020

22. Kindeberg T, Röhr E, Moksnes P-O. Boström C, Holmer M. 2019. Variation of carbon contents in eelgrass (Zostera marina) sediments implied from depth profiles. Biology Letters 15: 20180831. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0831

23. Temmink RJM, Christianen MJA, Fivash GS, Angelini C, Boström C, Didderen K, Engel SM, Esteban N, Gaeckle JL, Gagnon K, Govers LL, Infantes E, van Katwijk MM, Kipson S, Lamers LPM, Lengkeek W, Silliman BR, van Tussenbroek BI, Unsworth RKF, Yaakub SM, Bouma TJ, van der Heide T. 2020. Mimicry of emergent traits amplifies coastal restoration success. Nature Communications, 11:3668 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17438-4

24. Marin-Diaz B, Bouma TJ, Infantes E. 2020. Role of eelgrass on bed-load transport and sediment resuspension under oscillatory flow. Limnology and Oceanography, 65(2): 426-436. https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.11312

25. Riera R, Vasconcelos J, Baden S, Gerhardt L, Sousa R, Infantes E. 2020. Severe shifts of Zostera marina epifauna: comparative study between 1997 and 2018 on the Swedish Skagerrak coast. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 158: 111434. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111434

26. Dahl M, Asplund ME, Deyanova D, Franco JN, Koliji A, Infantes E, Perry D, Björk M, Gullström M. High seasonal variability in sediment carbon stocks of cold-temperate seagrass meadows. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 125, e2019JGR005430. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JG005430

27. Dahl M, Asplund ME, Björk M, Deyanova D, Infantes E, Iseaus M, Nyström A, Gullstrom M. 2020. The influence of hydrodynamic exposure on carbon storage and nutrient retention in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows on the Swedish Skagerrak coast. Scientific Reports, 10:13666 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70403-5

28. Infantes E, Cossa D, Stankovik M, Panyawai J, Tuntiprapas P, Daochai C, Prathep A. 2020. Dugong reproductive behaviour in Koh Libong, Thailand: observations using drones. Aquatic mammals, 46(6): 603-608. https://doi.org/10.1578/AM.46.6.2020.603

29. Jahnke M, Moksnes P-O, Olsen JL. Serra, NS, Nilsson Jacobi M, Kuusemäe K, Corell H. Jonsson PR. 2020. Integrating genetics, biophysical, and demographic insights identifies critical sites for seagrass conservation. Ecological Applications. https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2121

30. Infantes E, de Smit J, Tamarit E, Bouma TJ (2021) Making realistic wave climates in low-cost wave-mesocosms: a new tool for experimental ecology & biogeomorphology. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods. DOI: 10.1002/lom3.10425
Video-abstract: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MDzQXn64OQ4

31. Moksnes, P-O.,  Röhr, M. E.,  Holmer, M.,  Eklöf, J. S.,  Eriander, L.,  Infantes, E., and  Boström, C..  2021.  Major impacts and societal costs of seagrass loss on sediment carbon and nitrogen stocksEcosphere  12( 7):e03658. http://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.3658

32. Huber S, Hansen L, Nielsen L, Rasmussen M, Sølvsteen J, Berglund J, von Friesen CP, Danbolt M, Infantes E, Envall M, Moksnes P-O (2022) Novel approach for large-scale monitoring of submerged aquatic vegetation – a nationwide example from SwedenIntegrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 18(4):909-920. DOI: 10.1002/ieam.4493

33. de Smit, Bin Mohd Noo MS, Infantes E, Bouma TJ (2021) Quantifying the resilience of seagrass to climate change: combining in-situ wave-erosion experiments with data-driven modellingLimnology and Oceanography. DOI: 10.1002/lno.11865.

34. de los Santos C, Krång A-S, Infantes E (2021) Microplastic retention by marine vegetated canopies: simulations with seagrass meadows in a hydraulic flumeEnvironmental Pollution, 269: 116050

35. Castejón-Silvo I, Terrados J, Nguyen T, Jutfelt F, Infantes E. (2021)  Increased energy expenditure is an indirect effect of habitat structural complexity lossFunctional Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.13876.

36. Lowell A, Infantes E, Puishys L, Hill CE, Ramesh K, Peterson BJ, Cebrian J, Dupont S, Cox TE (2021) Does ocean acidification affect the development of Zostera marina seagrass beds from seeds? A series of experiments find parental carryover to benefit viability or germination. Frontiers in Marine Sciences, 2021(8):762086.

37. van der Heide T, Temmink R, Fivash G, Infantes E, Gagnon K, Boström C, Gaeckle J, Unsworth R, Esteban N, Lengkeek W, Didderen K, Bouma TJ, van de Koppel J, Christianen MJA. (2021) Coastal restoration success via emergent trait-mimicry is context dependent. Biological Conservation, 264: 109373.

38. Meysick L, Infantes E, Rugiu L, Gagnon K, Boström C. (2022) Coastal ecosystem engineers and their impact on sediment dynamics: Eelgrass-bivalve interactions under wave exposure. Limnology and Oceanography,  doi: 10.1002/lno.12022

39. Zenone A, Badalamenti F, Alagna A, Gorb SM, Infantes E (2022) Assessing tolerance to the hydrodynamic exposure of Posidonia oceanica seedlings anchored to rocky substratesFrontiers in Marine Sciences, 2022 (8):788448.

40. Collin GP., Duffy JE, Hovel KA, Kardish MR, Reynolds PL, Boström C, Boyer KE, Cusson M, Eklöf J, Engelen AH, Eriksson BK, Fodrie FJ, Griffin JN., Hereu CM., Hori M, Hughes AR, Ivanov MV, Jorgensen P, Kruschel C, Lee K-S, Lefcheck J, McGlathery K, Moksnes P-O, Nakaoka M, O'Connor MI., O'Connor NE., Olsen JL, Orth RJ, Peterson BJ, Reiss H, Rossi F, Ruesink J, Sotka EE, Thormar J, Tomas F, Unsworth R, Voigt EP, Whalen MA., Ziegler SL and Stachowicz JJ. (2022). The biogeography of community assembly: latitude and predation pressure drive geographic variation in community trait distribution in a guild of marine epifaunal crustaceans. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 289: 20211762. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2021.1762

41. Ruocco MJahnke M, Silva J, Procaccini G & Dattolo E (2022) Population genomic analysis of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa along a latitudinal cline identifies candidate genes for environmental adaptationFrontiers in Genetics. 13:1664-8021

42. Johannesson K, Leder E, André C, Dupont S, Eriksson S, Harding K, Havenhand J, Jahnke M, Jonsson PR, Kvarnemo C, Pavia H, Rafajlović M, Rödström EM, Thorndyke M, Blomberg A (2022) Ten years of marine evolutionary biology - challenges and achievements of a multidisciplinary research initiative. Evolutionary Applications10.1111/EVA.13389

43. Knutsen H, Catarino D, Rogers L, Sodeland M, Mattingsdal M, Jahnke M, Hutchings J, Mellerud I, Espeland SH, Johanneson K, Hansen MM, Jentoft S, André C, Jorde PE (2022) Determinants of population genetic structure and demographic connectivity: a comparative study on coastal fishesMolecular Ecology. 31(9):2562-2577.

44. Jahnke M Jonsson PR (2022). Biophysical models of dispersal contribute to seascape genetic analyses. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences377(1846), 20210024.

45. Wåhlström I,  Hammar L, Hume D, Pålsson J, Almroth-Rosell E, Dieterich C, Arneborg L, Gröger M, Mattsson M, Zillén Snowball L, Kågesten G, Törnqvist O, Breviere E, Brunnabend SE, Jonsson PR. 2022. Climate change impact on a coastal sea-as significant as all current pressures combined. Global Change Biology 28: 5310-5219. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.16312

46. Infantes E, Carroll D, Silva WTAF, Härkönen T, Edwards S, Harding KC. An automated work-flow for pinniped surveys: a new tool for monitoring population dynamics. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 10:905309. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2022.90530

47. Duffy JE, Stachowicz JJ, Reynolds PL, Hovel K, Jahnke M, Sotka EE, Boström C, Boyer KE, Cusson M, Eklöf J, Engelen A, Eriksson BK, Fodrie FJ, Griffin JN, Hereu CM, Hori M, Hughes AR, Ivanov MV, Jorgensen P, Kruschel C, Lee K-S, Lefcheck JS, Moksnes P-O, Nakaoka M, O'Connor MI, O'Connor NE, Orth RJ, Peterson BJ, Reiss H, Reiss K, Richardson JP, Rossi F, Ruesink JL, Thormar J, Tomas J, Unsworth R, Voigt E, Whalen MA, Ziegler SL and Olsen JL (2022) A Pleistocene legacy structures variation in modern seagrass ecosystemsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.212142511

3. Graduate theses

Doctoral thesis

Eriander L. 2016. Restoration and management of eelgrass (Zostera marina) on the west coast of Sweden. Doctoral thesis. Department of marine sciences, University of Gothenburg.

Master thesis

Stolpmann L. 2020. Effect of sediment capping on turbidity and implications for seagrass growth. Master thesis. Department of marine sciences, University of Gothenburg.

Bachelor theses

1. Nilsson J. 2017. Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) growth under the effect of deposited sediment on the leaves. Bachelor thesis. Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg.

2. Fridell A. 2019. The effect of sediment deposition on sulfide intrusion in eelgrass. Bachelor theses. Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg.

3. Andersson N. 2019. Sand-capping as a method to reduce sediment resuspension and improve eelgrass restoration in Sweden. Bachelor theses. Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg.

4. Möller H. 2019. Effect of wave events and sediment dynamics: sediment resuspension in Askerön. Bachelor theses. Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg.

5. Johansson I. 2021 Marine heatwave effect on Zostera marinas growth and photosynthetic abilities. Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg.

6. Billman M. 2022.  Inventory of organic carbon stock below shallow Zostera marina beds in the Baltic Sea. Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg.

Handbook for eelgrass restoration (PDF)

Video handbook for eelgrass restoration

The video handbook is a complement to the report "Handbook for restoration of eelgrass in Sweden" (Moksnes et al. 2016) which in three films summarizes the important parts of restoration: Site Selection, Large-scale Harvesting and Planting, and Monitoring and Evaluation.

Video (1:32)
Eelgrass restoration – Introduction
Video (5:56)
Eelgrass restoration – Large-scale Harvesting and Planting
Video (11:37)
Eelgrass restoration – Site Selection
Video (4:13)
Eelgrass restoration – Monitoring and Evaluation