University of Gothenburg
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The GenDip Dataset on Gender and Diplomatic Representation

The GenDip dataset maps the extent to which states appoint men, women and other diplomats to different kinds of bilateral ambassador postings between the years 1968-2021.

A unique dataset

This unique dataset is the only one of its kind that combines the information of where countries keep foreign missions and the gender of the heads of those missions. This data is a necessary component in understanding the changing gender of bilateral diplomacy, the causes and effects of ambassador appointments, status quests and status hierarchies involving gender and ambassadors, and more. Indeed, we hope that this dataset will inspire many new intriguing research questions. 

GenDip Dataset

Link to dataset: GenDip_Dataset_public_mainpostings_1968-2021

Please use the following reference when using the dataset: Niklasson, Birgitta and Ann E. Towns. 2023. The GenDip Dataset on Gender and Diplomatic Representation, version June23. University of Gothenburg: the GenDip Program: link to dataset.


Link to codebook: Dataset on Gender and Diplomatic Representation

Fact sheet

Link to fact sheet: GenDip Dataset Ranking Fact Sheet



We would like to thank the following people for contributing to the realization of this dataset: 

Interns, research assistants, colleagues, and friends who have helped out with the dataset (alphabetically): Joseph Akowuah, Sara Sofia Anderson, Ingrid Andreasson, Ylva Beckman, Ketevan Bolkvadze, Arash Bolouri, Kristin Boxström Le Guillarme, Lars Crusefalk, Ani Dimitrova, Beatrice Engman, Linus Forsman, Kristina Gurok, Mais Haddad, Rabab Karim Hashish, Felicitas Höck, Katarzyna Jezierska, Sahithi Kanapala, Chuleeporn Karlsson, Yunie Kim, Farman Ali Khan, Anne-Kathrine Kreft, Karolina Lecalonnec, Thu Lê, Mino Nakamura, Jasmin Rath, Felicia Robertson, Tove Selnes, Hasna Shawaly, Savina Sirik, Signe Stahlenius, Tove Wikehult, Tsz-wa Yip, Kaisa Yli-Rohdainen, Lixia Zheng.

Colleagues who have provided insightful and helpful comments (alphabetically): Stephen Dawson, Katarzyna Jezierska, Andrej Kokkonen, Elias Markstedt, Marina Nistotskaya.


If you have any comment or question about GenDip Data, please contact us by sending an email to