Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and degenerative disease that damages the central nervous system. Disease activity and treatment effects are usually monitored clinically and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our previous studies have shown that the concentration of biochemical markers in cerebrospinal fluid and blood can be used for prediction and evaluation of treatment effects. We are now investigating new methods for measuring neurodegeneration such as synthetic MRI (brain volume) and optical coherence tomography (measurement of the retinal nerve fiber layer). We study the dysregulation of the immune system in MS and how pharmacological interventions affect this. Our aim is to find early predictive biomarkers as a basis for therapeutic decisions and to improve the evaluation of treatment effects.