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Understanding the mechanisms of action of human vaccines

Research group
Active research
Project owner
Institute of Biomedicine

Short description

The vast majority of vaccines used today were developed decades ago using empirical approaches. The emergence of new diseases with the potential to become epidemic or pandemic, and the inadequate protection offered by some of the existing vaccines have prompted vaccine R&D to take a rational approach. As our understanding on the function of immune system enhanced, and new technologies were developed, vaccine R&D has shifted to development of engineered vaccines. Nonetheless, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how human vaccines work. Our lab is geared to respond to this poorly met need to enhance our understanding on mechanisms by which vaccines work, and discovering early blood markers that can predict immune responses induced by human vaccines and vaccine immunosafety.

Challenges in vaccine development, including the emergence of new diseases, and inadequate protection provided by some of the existing vaccines, have prompted vaccine research to shift away from empirical approaches towards more rationally engineered and pathogen-tailored vaccines. Enhancing our understanding of the mechanisms of action of human vaccines can inform rational design of human vaccines with optimal potency and safety. The Vaccine Evaluation Research Lab led by Ali Harandi seeks to respond to this need. 

The main research interest and current activities of the lab include in-depth evaluation of human responses to approved and exploratory human vaccines and adjuvants. This includes in-depth characterization of early biomarkers of vaccines immunogenicity, adjuvant potency and safety as well as assessment of the quality of vaccine/infection-induced antibody responses. The lab harnesses the power of cutting edge Omics technology combined with immunological read-outs to identify transcripts, microRNAs, and metabolites that can act as biomarkers of immunogenicity and immune safety of licensed human vaccines and promising exploratory vaccines and adjuvants. In-house developed Bio-Layer Interferometry-based assays, linear peptide microarray assay along with conventional multiplex serology assays are also employed for in-depth evaluation of antibody avidity, and conformational and linear B cell epitopes targeted by antibodies induced after vaccination or infection. 

The lab has participated, for the past decade, in several European Commission-funded collaborative projects with the overarching objective of enhancing our understanding of the mechanisms of action of clinically tested vaccines and adjuvants as well as characterization of immune responses to human pathogens. This includes participation in the collaborative projects on evaluation of the recently approved Ebola vaccine Ervebo, a licensed intradermal influenza vaccine, an exploratory Shigella-ETEC vaccine, and an exploratory Schistosomiasis vaccine involving cohorts in Europe, Asia, Africa, the US and Canada.

These efforts can help inform rational development of new and improved human vaccines with high potency without compromising safety.  
 

Ali Harandi portrait

Group members

Sravya S. Nakka: PhD, Researcher
Josefine Persson: PhD, MD, Researcher
Samuel Lundin: PhD, Researcher
Ogonna Obudulu: PhD, Researcher
Sara Torkzadeh: MSC, Researcher assistant
Björn Andersson: PhD
Hanna Kann: PhD, Postdoc