English translation of the Rök stone text


The Rök stone text translated, and the answer to the nine riddles with textual parallels on Old Norse or Anglo-Saxon poetry.

After Vamoth stand these runes. And Varin, the father, made them after the death-doomed son.

Let us say this as a memory for Odin, which spoils of war there were two, which twelve times were taken as spoils of war, both from one to another?

Answer: The sun and the moon


Riddle 29 in the Exeter book: The monthly battle between the sun and the moon over the lunar light


This let us say as second, who nine generations ago lost the life in the east but still decides the matter?
Ride the horse did the bold champion, chief of men, over the eastern horizon. Now he sits armed on his horse, his shield strapped, foremost of the famous.

Answer: The sun


Vafthruthnismal 46–47: The wolf kills the sun after it has given birth to a new sun
Vafthruthnismal 11–12: The rise of the sun is a ride
Grimnismal 38: The sun has a shield


Let us say this as a memory for Odin, who because of a wolf has suffered through a woman’s sacrifice?

Answer: The sun


Vafthruthnismal 46-47: The wolf kills the sun


This let us say as twelfth, where the wolf sees food on the battlefield, where twenty kings lie?

Answer: On the battlefield of Ragnarok


Vafthruthnismal 17–18: The last struggle on the battlefield


This let us say as thirteenth, which twenty kings were on the vast battlefield, of four names, born of four brothers?
Five Valkis, sons of Rathulf, five Hraithulfs, sons of Rogulf, five Haisls, sons of Haruth, five Gunnmunds, sons of Bern.
And for Odin a memory . . . (partially unreadable)

Answer: The warriors of Odin


Vafthruthnismal 40-41: The warriors of Odin practice for Ragnarok
Grimnismal 23: The warriors of Odin meet the wolf
Eiriksmal 7–9: Five kings accompany King Eirik to the battle against the wolf


Let us say a memory for Odin, dare!
[Who is] a protector of sanctuaries for a brother?

Answer: The sun


Vafthruthnismal 22–23: The brother of the sun is the moon
Lausavísa by Skúli Þorsteinsson: At the setting of the sun it retires to its sanctuary


[Whom] does the wolf redden with blood?

Answer: The sun


Vafthruthnismal 46–47: The wolf kills the sun
Voluspá 41: The wolf reddens the abodes of the gods with blood


Let us say a memory for Odin to the young man, to whom is born an offspring? It is not a lie.

Answer: Odin


Voluspá 55: Odin’s son Vithar


[Who] could beat a giant? It is not a lie.


Answer: Vithar

Vafthruthnismal 52–53: Vithar kills the wolf
Voluspá 55: Vithar kills the wolf


English translation of the inscription: CC-BY Henrik Williams, Per Holmberg, Bo Gräslund, Olof Sundqvist