Gender in bilateral diplomacy
In the past two decades, an increasing number of women have entered bilateral diplomacy. Women now make up 25-40% of the ambassadors of a range of countries, and they constitute an even larger share of the lower-level diplomats. Until recently, however, Foreign Service remained a patriarchal stronghold, indeed one of the most male-dominated spheres of the state and one into which women have had a difficult time entering. The recent entry of large numbers of women constitutes a rather dramatic change in the sexual make-up of the members of the diplomatic community. The aim of this project is to analyze whether and how gender norms, networks and practices operate in bilateral diplomacy as carried out by ambassadors and career diplomats.