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Effects of repeated testing in a longitudinal age-homogeneous study of cognitive aging

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Valgeir Thorvaldsson
S. M Hofer
S Berg
Boo Johansson
Publicerad i Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences
Sidor 348-354
Publiceringsår 2006
Publicerad vid Psykologiska institutionen
Sidor 348-354
Språk en
Ämnesord Aging, cognition, longitudinal, retest effects, practice effects
Ämneskategorier Psykologi


Estimates of gains related to repeated test exposure (retest effects) and within-person cogni-tive changes are confounded in most longitudinal studies because of the nonindependent time structures underlying both processes. Recently developed statistical approaches rely on be-tween-person age differences to estimate effects of repeated testing. This study, however, demonstrates how retest effects can be evaluated at the group level in an age-homogeneous population-based study by use of a sampling-based design approach in which level and change of cognitive performance of previous participants, measured at ages 70, 75, 79, 81, 85, 88, 90, 92, 95, 97, and 99 years, were compared with performances of survivors of a rep-resentative sample identified and drawn from the same original population cohort but invited for the first time at age 85 with subsequent measurements at ages 88, 90, 92, 95, 97, and 99. The comparisons revealed a trend toward retest effects on two out of five cognitive meas-urements. The study demonstrates how a design-based approach can provide valuable in-sights into continuous learning processes embedded in population average aging trajectories that are not confounded with cohort and mortality-related selective attrition

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