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Effect of Copper Ion Concentration on Bacteria and Cells.

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Lee Fowler
Håkan Enquist
Caroline Öhman-Mägi
Publicerad i Materials (Basel, Switzerland)
Volym 12
Nummer/häfte 22
Sidor 3798
ISSN 1996-1944
Publiceringsår 2019
Publicerad vid
Sidor 3798
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12223798
Ämnesord MC3T3, S. epidermidis, antibacterial, copper ion, ion release
Ämneskategorier Biomaterialvetenskap


In the oral cavity, dental implants-most often made of commercially pure titanium-come in contact with bacteria, and antibacterial management has been researched extensively to improve patient care. With antibiotic resistance becoming increasingly prevalent, this has resulted in copper being investigated as an antibacterial element in alloys. In this study, the objective was to investigate the copper ion concentrations at which cyto-toxicity is avoided while bacterial inhibition is ensured, by comparing Cu ion effects on selected eukaryotes and prokaryotes. To determine relevant copper ion concentrations, ion release rates from copper and a 10 wt. % Cu Ti-alloy were investigated. Survival studies were performed on MC3T3 cells and Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria, after exposure to Cu ions concentrations ranging from 9 × 10-3 to 9 × 10-12 g/mL. Cell survival increased from <10% to >90% after 24 h of exposure, by reducing Cu concentrations from 9 × 10-5 to 9 × 10-6 g/mL. Survival of bacteria also increased in the same range of Cu concentrations. The maximum bacteria growth was found at 9 × 10-7 g/mL, probably due to stress response. In conclusion, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of Cu ions for these prokaryotes and eukaryotes were found in the range from 9 × 10-5 to 9 × 10-6 g/mL. Interestingly, the Cu ion concentration correlating to the release rate of the 10 wt. % Cu alloy (9 × 10-8 g/mL) did not kill the bacteria, although this alloy has previously been found to be antibacterial. Further studies should investigate in depth the bacteria-killing mechanism of copper.

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