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The Affective Profiles Model: 20 Years of Research and Beyond

Författare Danilo Garcia
Förlag Springer
Förlagsort Cham, Switzerland.
Publiceringsår 2020
Publicerad vid Psykologiska institutionen
Språk en
Ämnesord Personality, Temperament, Affective System, Affective Profiles Model
Ämneskategorier Psykologi


The affectivity system is composed of positive and negative affect, which are indicators of well-being influenced by genes and the environment to different extent (for a review see Cloninger & Garcia, 2015). Although most would agree to see positive and negative affect as opposite ends of a continuum, there is large evidence that they are best thought as two separate constructs of the affectivity system (Garcia, 2011). Furthermore, besides being indicators or markers of well-being, positive and negative affect are suggested as two distinctive factors that also reflect stable emotional-temperamental dispositions or signal sensitivity systems (for a review see Cloninger & Garcia, 2015). This independent inter-relationship between the two affectivity dimensions implies that individuals do not only differ in affectivity between each other but also within themselves, that is, the affectivity system is a complex dynamic adaptive system (Garcia, MacDonald & Archer, 2015). From a person-oriented framework, these two affectivity dimensions within the individual can be seen as interwoven components with whole-system properties (Bergman & Wångby, 2014). The outlook of the individual as a whole-system unit is then best studied by analyzing patterns of information (Bergman & Wångby, 2014). Although at a theoretical level there is a myriad of probable patterns of combinations of peoples’ levels of positive and negative affect, if viewed at a global level, there should be a small number of more frequently observed “common types” or profiles (cf. Bergman & Wångby, 2014; Bergman & Magnusson, 1997; see also Cloninger, Svrakic & Svrakic, 1997, who explain nonlinear dynamics in complex adaptive systems). In this line of thinking, Archer and colleagues (Norlander, Bood & Archer, 2002) coined the notion of the affective profiles by proposing four possible combinations using individuals’ experience of high/low positive/negative affect: (1) high positive affect and low negative affect (i.e., the self-fulfilling profile), (2) low positive affect and low negative affect (i.e., the low affective profile), (3) high positive affect and high negative affect (i.e., the high affective profile), and (4) low positive affect and high negative affect (i.e., the self-destructive profile). During the last 20 years, research using the affective profiles model has distinguished individual differences in biological, psychological, and social phenomena. Most of the studies have been conducted among Swedes and investigated differences in ill-being and well-being, and some of them also in personality (e.g., Garcia and Siddiqui, 2009ab; Garcia, 2011, 2012). More recently, however, some studies have used the affective profiles model to discern individual differences in brain systems (Orri, Pingault, Rouquette, Lalanne, Falissard, Herba, Côté & Berthoz, 2017) and other cultures, such as US-residents (Schütz, Sailer, Nima, Rosenberg, Andersson Arntén, Archer & Garcia, 2013), Dutch (Kunst, 2011), Italian (De Caroli & Sagone, 2016; Di Fabio & Bucci, 2015), Indonesian (Adrianson, Ancok, Ramdhani & Archer, 2013), Iranian (Garcia & Moradi, 2013), and Salvadorian (Garcia, Ghiabi, Rosenberg, Nima & Archer, 2014). However, although the profiles are proposed as a model of the affective system that can be used to discern individual differences, only a few studies have investigated differences in personality, temperament, and character traits. In addition, there is a need to test, validate, and debate different conceptualizations, procedures and measures for the affective profiles model. The first part of this book focus on concepts and methods for the operationalization and measurement of the affective profiles model (Chapter 1-5). Part 2 addresses individual differences with regard to the affective profiles using a diversity of personality models and also using self-descriptions people use to describe their identity (Chapter 6-11). In the third part of the book we investigate individual differences in health and well-being in different cultural (e.g., Sweden, USA, El Salvador, Indonesia, Italy, Iran) and workplaces (e.g., Clergy, Entrepreneurs, Police personnel) contexts (Chapter 12-19). The final part of the book comprises the effect of interventions on individuals' affectivity, final remarks, and future venues (Chapter 20-22).

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