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Genetic divergence and phenotypic plasticity contribute to variation in cuticular hydrocarbons in the seaweed fly Coelopa frigida

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Emma L Berdan
Swantje Enge
Göran M. Nylund
M. Wellenreuther
G. A. Martens
Henrik Pavia
Publicerad i Ecology and Evolution
ISSN 2045-7758
Publiceringsår 2019
Publicerad vid Institutionen för marina vetenskaper
Institutionen för biologi och miljövetenskap, Tjärnö marinbiologiska laboratorium
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5690
Ämnesord Coelopa frigida, cuticular hydrocarbons, diet, population differentiation, sexual signal, cactophilic drosophila-mojavensis, female mating preference, aggregation, pheromone, premating isolation, mate choice, inversion frequencies, chromosomal inversion, melanogaster, evolution, populations, Environmental Sciences & Ecology, Evolutionary Biology
Ämneskategorier Miljövetenskap, Oceanografi, hydrologi, vattenresurser

Sammanfattning

Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) form the boundary between insects and their environments and often act as essential cues for species, mate, and kin recognition. This complex polygenic trait can be highly variable both among and within species, but the causes of this variation, especially the genetic basis, are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated phenotypic and genetic variation of CHCs in the seaweed fly, Coelopa frigida, and found that composition was affected by both genetic (sex and population) and environmental (larval diet) factors. We subsequently conducted behavioral trials that show CHCs are likely used as a sexual signal. We identified general shifts in CHC chemistry as well as individual compounds and found that the methylated compounds, mean chain length, proportion of alkenes, and normalized total CHCs differed between sexes and populations. We combined these data with whole genome resequencing data to examine the genetic underpinnings of these differences. We identified 11 genes related to CHC synthesis and found population-level outlier SNPs in 5 that are concordant with phenotypic differences. Together these results reveal that the CHC composition of C. frigida is dynamic, strongly affected by the larval environment, and likely under natural and sexual selection.

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