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A Review of the Impact of Implant Biomaterials on Osteocytes

Forskningsöversiktsartikel
Författare Furqan A. Shah
Peter Thomsen
Anders Palmquist
Publicerad i Journal of Dental Research
Volym 97
Nummer/häfte 9
Sidor 977-986
ISSN 0022-0345
Publiceringsår 2018
Publicerad vid Institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för biomaterialvetenskap
Sidor 977-986
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022034518778033
Ämnesord osseointegration, bone, dental implants, bone matrix, biocompatible materials, bone-implant, dental implants, titanium implants, electron-microscopy, canalicular, system, bone regeneration, loaded implants, rat model, interface, density, osseointegration, Dentistry, Oral Surgery & Medicine
Ämneskategorier Biomaterialvetenskap

Sammanfattning

In lamellar bone, a network of highly oriented interconnected osteocytes is organized in concentric layers. Through their cellular processes contained within canaliculi, osteocytes are highly mechanosensitive and locally modulate bone remodeling. We review the recent developments demonstrating the significance of the osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network in bone maintenance around implant biomaterials. Drilling during implant site preparation triggers osteocyte apoptosis, the magnitude of which correlates with drilling speed and heat generation, resulting in extensive remodeling and delayed healing. In peri-implant bone, osteocytes physically communicate with implant surfaces via canaliculi and are responsive to mechanical loading, leading to changes in osteocyte numbers and morphology. Certain implant design features allow peri-implant osteocytes to retain a less aged phenotype, despite highly advanced extracellular matrix maturation. Physicochemical properties of anodically oxidized surfaces stimulate bone formation and remodeling by regulating the expression of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-B ligand), RANK, and OPG (osteoprotegerin) from implant-adherent cells. Modulation of certain osteocyte-related molecular signaling mechanisms (e.g., sclerostin blockade) may enhance the biomechanical anchorage of implants. Evaluation of the peri-implant osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network should therefore be a necessary component in future investigations of osseointegration to more completely characterize the biological response to materials for load-bearing applications in dentistry and orthopedics.

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