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Evolutionary ecology of telomeres: a review

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Mats Olsson
E. Wapstra
C. R. Friesen
Publicerad i Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Volym 1422
Nummer/häfte 1
Sidor 5-28
ISSN 0077-8923
Publiceringsår 2018
Publicerad vid Institutionen för biologi och miljövetenskap
Sidor 5-28
Språk en
Länkar https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.13443
Ämnesord telomeres, life history, aging, longevity, selection, heritability, mechanisms, long-lived birds, painted dragon lizards, wild brown trout, life-span, lacerta-agilis, oxidative stress, sand lizard, dna-damage, x-chromosome, oldest-old, Science & Technology - Other Topics
Ämneskategorier Ekologi, Evolutionsbiologi

Sammanfattning

Telomere-induced selection could take place if telomere-associated disease risk shortens reproductive life span and differently reduces relative fitness among individuals. Some of these diseases first appear before reproductive senescence and could thus influence ongoing selection. We ask whether we can estimate the components of the breeder's equation for telomeres, in which the response to selection (R, by definition "evolution") is the product of ongoing selection (S) and heritability (h(2)). However, telomere inheritance is a conundrum: in quantitative genetics, traits can usually be allocated to categories with relatively high or low heritability, depending on their association with relative fitness. Telomere traits, however, show wide variation in heritability from zero to one, across taxa, gender, ethnicity, age, and disease status. In spite of this, there is divergence in telomere length among populations, supporting past and ongoing telomere evolution. Rates of telomere attrition and elongation vary among taxa with some, but not complete, taxonomic coherence. For example, telomerase is commonly referred to as "restricted to the germ line in mammals," but inbred mice and beavers have telomerase upregulation in somatic tissue, as do many ectotherms. These observations provoke a simplistic understanding of telomere evolutionary biology-clearly much is yet to be discovered.

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