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Belonging for violence: Personality, football fandom, and spectator aggression

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Holly Knapton
Lisa Espinosa
Henk E. Meier
Emma Bäck
Hanna Bäck
Publicerad i Nordic Psychology
Volym 70
Nummer/häfte 4
Sidor 278-289
ISSN 19012276
Publiceringsår 2018
Publicerad vid Psykologiska institutionen
Sidor 278-289
Språk en
Ämnesord hooliganism, need to belong, rejection sensitivity, spectator violence
Ämneskategorier Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)

Sammanfattning

© 2018 The Editors of Nordic Psychology Spectator violence is an issue that affects many football matches in Sweden and other countries. Different models have tried to explain why individuals participate in sports fandom and associated behaviors. However, often these models ignore social and individual factors that may impact if and why individuals participate in spectator violence. Outgroup violence can be motivated by pro-social concerns for ingroup acceptance. We argue that outgroup violence among football supporters may be used as a marker of ingroup loyalty and attachment. A survey of 350 male Swedish football supporters was conducted to assess their levels of need to belong, rejection sensitivity, and willingness to engage in violence. A hierarchal regression analysis showed a significant interaction, such that individuals with a high need to belong and who are sensitive to rejection are more willing to engage in violence against an opposing team. The results provide important insights into the social dynamics of intergroup violence and spectator violence. We extend upon existing theory by adding this social personality perspective to show the importance of individual differences in belongingness needs as a driver for participation in spectator violence.

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