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A potential role for chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate in arm regeneration in Amphiura filiformis

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Rashmi Ramachandra
RB Namburi
Samuel Dupont
Olga Ortega-Martínez
TH van Kuppevelt
Ulf Lindahl
D Spillmann
Publicerad i Glycobiology
Volym 27
Nummer/häfte 5
Sidor 438-449
ISSN 0959-6658
Publiceringsår 2017
Publicerad vid Institutionen för biologi och miljövetenskap, Kristineberg
Sven Lovén centrum för marina vetenskaper
Sidor 438-449
Språk en
Länkar https://doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cwx0...
Ämnesord Amphiura filiformis, brittlestar, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, regeneration
Ämneskategorier Biologiska vetenskaper

Sammanfattning

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) from various vertebrate and invertebrate sources are known to be involved in diverse cellular mechanisms during repair and regenerative processes. Recently, we have identified CS/DS as the major GAG in the brittlestar Amphiura filiformis, with high proportions of di- and tri-O-sulfated disaccharide units. As this echinoderm is known for its exceptional regeneration capacity, we aimed to explore the role of these GAG chains during A. filiformis arm regeneration. Analysis of CS/DS chains during the regeneration process revealed an increase in the proportion of the tri-O-sulfated disaccharides. Conversely, treatment of A. filiformis with sodium chlorate, a potent inhibitor of sulfation reactions in GAG biosynthesis, resulted in a significant reduction in arm growth rates with total inhibition at concentrations higher than 5 mM. Differentiation was less impacted by sodium chlorate exposure or even slightly increased at 1–2 mM. Based on the structural changes observed during arm regeneration we identified chondroitin synthase, chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2 and dermatan-4-O-sulfotransferase as candidate genes and sought to correlate their expression with the expression of the A. filiformis orthologue of bone morphogenetic factors, AfBMP2/4. Quantitative amplification by real-time PCR indicated increased expression of chondroitin synthase and chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2, with a corresponding increase in AfBMP2/4 during regeneration relative to nonregenerating controls. Our findings suggest that proper sulfation of GAGs is important for A. filiformis arm regeneration and that these molecules may participate in mechanisms controlling cell proliferation.

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