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À propos Rosa Luxemburg

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Gunilla Hermansson
Publicerad i Tidskrift för litteraturvetenskap
Volym 46
Nummer/häfte 3-4
Sidor 5-24
ISSN 1104-0556
Publiceringsår 2016
Publicerad vid Institutionen för litteratur, idéhistoria och religion
Sidor 5-24
Språk da
Länkar ojs.ub.gu.se/ojs/index.php/tfl/issu...
Ämnesord Rosa Luxemburg, Emil Bønnelycke, Hagar Olson, Avantgarde, Nordisk modernism, centrum och periferi, genus, våld, revolution
Ämneskategorier Litteraturvetenskap


Staging oneself as an avant-garde or modernist writer during the inter-war period involved precarious negotiations between the national, regional (in this case the Nordic) and international roles and positions. But these were also influenced by the notion that avant-garde art and aesthetics depended on violence, a violence which was more often than not encoded as masculine. For this reason, literary images of the woman revolutionary are particularly revealing for the issues and ideas at stake. This article views two interpretations of Rosa Luxemburg by Emil Bønnelycke and Hagar Olsson as part of a larger pattern concerning the dynamics between cultural centres and peripheries as well as the connection between avant-garde aesthetics and violence. When Emil Bønnelycke first read his Rosa Luxemburg. Prosalyrisk Symphoni pathêtique in memoriam in Februart 1919, he chocked and excited the audience by drawing a revolver firing it at the cealing at the moment of Luxemburg’s death. Interestingly enough, Bønnelycke’s Luxemburg is represented in two ways: one is the weak woman who is entirely directed towards the masculine power and hatred which she finds embodied in Liebknecht. The other Luxemburg is presented in stylized passages that function as a leitmotiv in the short work. Here she is a young girl with a child’s holy passion and a, as of yet, passive defiance against the evils she has witnessed. Luxemburg is de-erotizied in both versions; but whereas the middle-aged woman painfully exhibits her impotence, the young girl is invested with a power of resistance, which is nonetheless non-acute. This appears to be Bønnelycke’s way of restoring gender roles without completely disarming the energy of revolution which he needed in order to be able to represent the ”European panic” in Denmark, under relatively safe conditions. In the inter-war period, Hagar Olsson paradoxically interpreted Finland as a neutral, Nordic country, out of contact with the Euopean war and revolutions. Instead, she was inspired from her experiences of the communist uprising in Estonia 1924, publishing her own translation of a poem dedicated to Luxemburg by a young communist poet, Ida Meerits. The context was an article from 1925 dedicated to a new type of poet: the singing revolutionary. Olsson singled out the word flyttfåglar (”migratory birds”) from the poem and used it to reflect on the borders of art and revolution, a theme she developed in other articles as well. She wrote that, in their internationalism, the new, engaged poets were like migratory birds. But her discussions also concerned the violence of revolution and the avant-garde geography as a power play between dominating and dominated literatures. The figure of the women revolutionary in Olsson’s dramas, S.O.S. (1928) and Det blåa undret (The Blue Wonder, 1932), and in the photo-novel På Kanaanexpressen (On the Canaan Express, 1929) further highlights the complex ways in which Olsson combined the problem of violence, avant-garde aesthetics and gender in her inter-war work.

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