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Gender differences in broad and narrow ability dimensions

Kapitel i bok
Författare Monica Rosén
Publicerad i Cognitive Abilities and Educational Outcomes. A Festschrift in Honour of Jan-Eric Gustafsson
Sidor 61-88
ISBN 978-3-319-43472-8
Förlag Springer International Publishing
Förlagsort Dordrecht, The Netherlands
Publiceringsår 2017
Publicerad vid Institutionen för pedagogik och specialpedagogik
Sidor 61-88
Språk en
Länkar doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-43473-5_4
Ämnesord Gender differences, Cognitive abilites, School achievement, Structural Equation Modeling, Nested models
Ämneskategorier Utbildningsvetenskap, Psykologi

Sammanfattning

This chapter describes investigations of gender differences in cognitive abilities and their relations to performance on standardized achievement tests in grade 6. The data used come from Jan-Eric Gustafsson’s projects in the 1980s where cognitive achievement on a battery of 13 different ability tests and 3 different standardised achievement tests were collected from 50 school classes. The nested factor (NF) approach demonstrated by Gustafsson (Multivar Behav Res 27(2): 239–247, 1992) and the missing data modeling approach suggested by Muthén et al. (Psychometrika 52:431–462, 1987) were used to investigate gender differences in latent dimensions of hierarchically ordered cognitive abilities. Based on the results, it is argued that a more complex understanding is needed of the measures, as well as of the observed performances, of the compared groups. Whilst the modeled hierarchical structure of cognitive abilities fitted both groups equally well, the pattern of mean differences in latent dimensions showed both expected and unexpected results. A female advantage was found on general intelligence (g) and on the broad general crystallised intelligence factor (Gc). A male advantage was found on the general visualization factor (Gv), and on several narrow ability dimensions. This was not deducible from the univariate analysis. The chapter ends with a discussion on the degree to which these differences fit the assumptions of the so-called investment theory, that general fluid intelligence (Gf) precedes other broad abilities and narrow ability dimensions.

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