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The Outlook on Time Dimensions and a Person’s Regulatory Mode Profile

Konferensbidrag (offentliggjort, men ej förlagsutgivet)
Författare Danilo Garcia
Trevor Archer
Publicerad i 3rd International Conference on Time Perspective, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Publiceringsår 2016
Publicerad vid Psykologiska institutionen
Språk en
Ämnesord Self-regulatory Mode; Temporal Life Satisfaction; Time Perspective; Well-Being
Ämneskategorier Psykologi


Background: Individuals approach goals by first pondering about different ways and their own capability to reach that goal (i.e., assessment) and thereafter by putting things into motion by simply starting and keep doing the behavior (i.e., locomotion) that is supposed to take them all the way to the end of a happy road. People vary in the extent to which they use these two independent and dynamic modes to regulate their behavior. That is, some individuals have an assessor profile (i.e., high in assessment/low in locomotion) and others a locomotor profile (i.e., low assessment/high locomotion). Additionally, the independency of this regulatory system also implies the probability that some individuals have a low self-regulator profile (i.e., low assessment/low locomotion), yet others have a high self-regulator profile (i.e., high assessment/high locomotion). Using this self-regulatory mode profiles model, we investigated individual differences in time perspective dimensions (i.e., past positive, past negative, present hedonistic, present fatalistic, and future) in order to explore how the outlook on time is associated to changes in regulatory mode focus. Method: Participants (N = 515) answered to the Self-regulatory Mode Questionnaire and the Zimbardo’s Time Perspective Inventory. Profiling was conducted in the ROPstat software using Ward’s hierarchical cluster analysis. Results: Comparisons between individuals with profiles at the end extremes of the model showed that those with a locomotor profile scored higher than those with an assessor profile in the past positive and future time perspective dimensions and lower in the past negative and present fatalistic time perspective dimensions. Moreover, individuals with a high self-regulator profile scored higher than those with a low self-regulator profile in the past negative and the future time perspective dimensions. Comparisons between individuals who differed in one regulatory mode but where similar in the other suggested that high levels of past positive and low levels of both past negative and future were associated to low assessment when locomotion was high and to high locomotion when assessment was low. High levels in the future time perspective dimension were related to high levels of locomotion when assessment was high, while low levels of past negative were related to low assessment when locomotion was low. Conclusion: The model proposed here illustrates the complexity of a dynamic system of self-regulation in which the same antecedents can lead to different outcomes (i.e., multi-finality). For example, an outlook on time comprising a sentimental and positive view of the past (high past positive), a pessimistic attitude toward the past (high past negative), and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high future) was associated to changes from low assessment/high locomotion to either high assessment/high locomotion or low assessment/low locomotion. In other words, this specific outlook on time was associated to increases in assessment when locomotion was high but also to decreases in locomotion when assessment was low.

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