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The ocean carbon sink – impacts, vulnerabilities, and challenges

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Christoph Heinze
S Meyer
N Goris
Leif G Anderson
R Steinfeldt
N Chang
C Le Quéré
D.C.E. Bakker
Publicerad i Earth System Dynamics
Volym 6
Sidor 327-358
ISSN 2190-4979
Publiceringsår 2015
Publicerad vid Institutionen för marina vetenskaper
Sidor 327-358
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.5194/esd-6-327-2015
Ämnesord Ocean carbon system, climate
Ämneskategorier Oceanografi, Klimatforskning

Sammanfattning

Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is, next to water vapour, considered to be the most important natural green- house gas on Earth. Rapidly rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations caused by human actions such as fossil fuel burning, land-use change or cement production over the past 250 years have given cause for concern that changes in Earth’s climate system may progress at a much faster pace and larger extent than during the past 20 000 years. Investigating global carbon cycle pathways and finding suitable adaptation and mitigation strate- gies has, therefore, become of major concern in many research fields. The oceans have a key role in regulating atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and currently take up about 25 % of annual anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Questions that yet need to be answered are what the carbon uptake kinetics of the oceans will be in the future and how the increase in oceanic carbon inventory will affect its ecosystems and their services. This requires comprehensive investigations, including high-quality ocean carbon measurements on different spatial and temporal scales, the management of data in sophisticated databases, the application of Earth system models to provide future projections for given emission scenarios as well as a global synthesis and outreach to policy makers. In this paper, the current understanding of the ocean as an important carbon sink is reviewed with re- spect to these topics. Emphasis is placed on the complex interplay of different physical, chemical and biological processes that yield both positive and negative air–sea flux values for natural and anthropogenic CO 2 as well as on increased CO 2 (uptake) as the regulating force of the radiative warming of the atmosphere and the gradual acidification of the oceans. Major future ocean carbon challenges in the fields of ocean observations, modelling and process research as well as the relevance of other biogeochemical cycles and greenhouse gases are discussed

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