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Impact of asthma medication and familial factors on the association between childhood asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a combined twin- and register-based study

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare K. Holmberg
C. Lundholm
Henrik Anckarsäter
H. Larsson
C. Almqvist
Publicerad i Clinical and Experimental Allergy
Volym 45
Nummer/häfte 5
Sidor 964-973
ISSN 0954-7894
Publiceringsår 2015
Publicerad vid Institutionen för neurovetenskap och fysiologi
Sidor 964-973
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.1111/cea.12529
Ämnesord asthma, attention-deficit, hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anti-asthmatic agents, epidemiology, twins, SWEDISH TWIN, ATOPIC DISEASES, RISK-FACTOR, CHILDREN, ADHD, HYPERACTIVITY, ADOLESCENCE, COMORBIDITY, PREVALENCE, ADJUSTMENT, Allergy, Immunology
Ämneskategorier Immunologi inom det medicinska området

Sammanfattning

BackgroundAsthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are prevalent in childhood and may cause functional impairment and stress in families. Previous research supports an association between asthma and ADHD in children, but several aspects of this relationship are unclear. ObjectiveOur aim was to study whether the association between asthma and ADHD is restricted to either the inattentive or the hyperactive/impulsive symptoms of ADHD, to explore the impact of asthma severity and asthma medication and the contribution of shared genetic and environmental risk factors on the asthma-ADHD relationship. MethodsData on asthma, ADHD, zygosity and possible confounders were collected from parental questionnaires at 9 or 12years on 20072 twins through the Swedish Twin Register, linked to the Swedish Medical Birth Register, the National Patient Register and the Prescribed Drug Register. The association between asthma and ADHD, the impact of asthma severity and medication, was assessed by generalized estimating equations. Cross-twin-cross-trait correlations (CTCT) were estimated to explore the relative importance of genes and environment for the association. ResultsAsthmatic children had a higher risk of also having ADHD [odds ratio (OR) 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-2.02]. The association was not restricted to either of the two dimensions of ADHD. The magnitude of the association increased with asthma severity (OR 2.84, 95% CI: 1.86-4.35) for 4 asthma attacks in the last 12months and was not affected by asthma treatment. The CTCTs possibly indicate that the genetic component in overlap of the disorders is weak. Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceChildhood asthma, especially severe asthma, is associated with ADHD. Asthma medication seems not to increase the risk of ADHD. Clinicians should be aware of the potential of ADHD in asthma. Optimal asthma care needs to be integrated with effective evaluation and treatment of ADHD in children with co-existing disorders.

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