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The gut microbiota reduces leptin sensitivity and the expression of the obesity-suppressing neuropeptides proglucagon (Gcg) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) in the central nervous system.

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Erik Schéle
Louise Grahnemo
Fredrik Anesten
Anna Hallén
Fredrik Bäckhed
John-Olov Jansson
Publicerad i Endocrinology
Volym 154
Nummer/häfte 10
Sidor 3643-51
ISSN 1945-7170
Publiceringsår 2013
Publicerad vid Wallenberglaboratoriet
Institutionen för neurovetenskap och fysiologi
Institutionen för neurovetenskap och fysiologi, sektionen för fysiologi
Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för molekylär och klinisk medicin
Sidor 3643-51
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2012-2151
Ämneskategorier Medicinska grundvetenskaper

Sammanfattning

The gut microbiota contributes to fat mass and the susceptibility to obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. To investigate whether the gut microbiota affects hypothalamic and brainstem body fat-regulating circuits, we compared gene expression of food intake-regulating neuropeptides between germ-free and conventionally raised (CONV-R) mice. We found that CONV-R mice had decreased expression of the antiobesity neuropeptide glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) precursor proglucagon (Gcg) in the brainstem. Moreover, in both the hypothalamus and the brainstem, CONV-R mice had decreased expression of the antiobesity neuropeptide brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf). CONV-R mice had reduced expression of the pro-obesity peptides neuropeptide-Y (Npy) and agouti-related protein (Agrp), and increased expression of the antiobesity peptides proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (Cart) in the hypothalamus. The latter changes in neuropeptide expression could be secondary to elevated fat mass in CONV-R mice. Leptin treatment caused less weight reduction and less suppression of orexigenic Npy and Agrp expression in CONV-R mice compared with germ-free mice. The hypothalamic expression of leptin resistance-associated suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs-3) was increased in CONV-R mice. In conclusion, the gut microbiota reduces the expression of 2 genes coding for body fat-suppressing neuropeptides, Gcg and Bdnf, an alteration that may contribute to fat mass induction by the gut microbiota. Moreover, the presence of body fat-inducing gut microbiota is associated with hypothalamic signs of Socs-3-mediated leptin resistance, which may be linked to failed compensatory body fat reduction.

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