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Combined effects of antifoulants – synergistic, additive or antagonistic effects?

Poster (konferens)
Författare Åsa Arrhenius
Thomas Backhaus
Hans Blanck
Åke Granmo
Annelie Hilvarsson
Katherine Langford
Ida Wendt
Publicerad i the 15th International Congress on Marine Corrosion and Fouling, 25-29 July 2010, Newcastle
Publiceringsår 2010
Publicerad vid Institutionen för växt- och miljövetenskaper
Institutionen för marin ekologi
Språk en
Ämnesord antfouling
Ämneskategorier Ekologi, Marin ekologi, Annan geovetenskap och miljövetenskap, Miljökemi, Miljötoxikologi


Antifoulants are often used in combinations in paints. A survey of the scientific literatures shows that the effects of such antifoulant combinations are often predictable with a reasonable accuracy by the classical mixture toxicity concepts of Concentration Addition (CA) and Independent Action (IA). However, some studies also reported mixture effects that were substantially higher (synergistic) or lower (antagonistic) than predicted by either CA or IA. We therefore systematically explored the frequency and quantitative importance of such interactions within a group of 6 antifoulants using settling and growth of marine periphytic communities as the endpoint. All 15 possible 2-compound combinations that can be composed from the pool of six antifoulants were experimentally tested in three different ratios per mixture and their observed toxicity was compared to the predictions by CA and IA. The results show that the toxicities of the mixtures in most cases are at least roughly in agreement with the predictions, but that in several cases antagonistic effects occurred, which were related to the mixture-ratio and concentrations applied. No cases of synergism were observed for any of the investigated combinations. Implications for paint production as well as for the environment will be discussed. This study is part of the Marine Paint research programme funded by MISTRA, the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research.

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