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Detoxification to Daphnia magna of 4 pharmaceuticals and 7 surfactants by activated sludge

Poster (konferens)
Författare Göran Dave
Gabriela Herger
Publicerad i 6th SETAC World Congress 2012, 20-24 May, Berlin
Publiceringsår 2012
Publicerad vid Institutionen för biologi och miljövetenskap
Språk en
Länkar www.eventure-online.com/eventure/pu...
Ämnesord Daphnia, detoxification, pharmaceuticals, surfactants
Ämneskategorier Biologiska vetenskaper, Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap


Pharmaceuticals are bioactive compounds generally resistant to biodegradation, which can make them problematic when they are released into nature. The use pattern for pharmaceuticals means that they are discharged into water via sewage treatment plants. Also surfactants are discharged through sewage treatment plants, primarily due to their use in detergents and shampoos and other cleaners. In this study the acute toxicity to Daphnia magna of 4 pharmaceuticals (ciprofloxacin, ibuprofen, paracetamol and zinc pyrithione) and 7 surfactants (C8 alkyl glucoside, C6 alkyl glucoside, sodium caprylimidiopropionate, tallow-trimethyl-ammonium chloride, potassium decylphosphate, propylheptanol ethoxylate and alkylmonoethanolamide ethoxylate) was determined. The abiotic (without activated sludge bacteria) and biotic (with activated sludge bacteria) detoxification was also determined. The 24-h EC50s ranged from 2 µg l-1 for the most toxic substance (zinc pyrithione) to 2 g l-1 for the least toxic compound (C6 alkyl glucoside). The detoxification rate did not differ between pharmaceuticals and surfactants, but within these groups there were differences in detoxification rate, which should be important in assessments of their environmental hazards and risks. Detoxification rates determined as the ratio between initial EC50 and EC50 after one week in water with activated sludge bacteria ranged from 0.4 (paracetamol) to 13 (zinc pyrithione). For most of these chemicals detoxification rate decreased after one week, but for one (alkylmonoethanolamide ethoxylate) it increased from about 2 to 30 times after 2 weeks. Further studies are needed to determine the degradation products that were precipitated (aggregated) for some of the tested chemicals. Altogether, this study has shown that there are large differences in toxicity among chemicals entering sewage treatment plants, but also that the detoxification of them can differ. Therefore, the detoxification should receive more attention in the hazard and risk assessment of chemicals entering sewage treatment plants.

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