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Toxicity and detoxification of chemicals in detergents, softeners and shampoos

Konferensbidrag (offentliggjort, men ej förlagsutgivet)
Författare Göran Dave
Publicerad i 6th SETAC World Congress 2012, 20-24 May, Berlin
Publiceringsår 2012
Publicerad vid Institutionen för biologi och miljövetenskap
Språk en
Länkar www.eventure-online.com/eventure/pu...
Ämnesord chemical products, Daphnia, detoxification, toxicity testing
Ämneskategorier Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap, Biologiska vetenskaper


Previously environmental concern was mainly focused on the intentional release of chemicals from use of pesticides and discharges from industries. Presently concern has also been raised on non-intensional release of chemicals from articles and products like paints, textiles, tires, plastics, pharmaceuticals, and personal care and cleaning products. For all chemicals their hazard and risk is based on toxicity (including genotoxicity and sensitation), degradation and bioconcentration, either from real testing or chemometric modelling. However, for products and articles, which may contain many chemicals at confidential concentrations, assessments of biodegradation, bioconcentration and combined toxicity based on ingredient toxicity are not possible to make. Therefore, an approach similar to that used for industrial wastewaters using toxicity testing and, when necessary, TIE (Toxicity Edentification Evaluation) might be used. Since many chemicals will reach the environment via sewage treatment works, their biodegradation and detoxification are important for their environmental ecotoxicity. Reseach on detergents, softeners and shampoos has shown that surfactants are key chemicals for the toxicity of these products, and that there is a wide range in product toxicity, as well as in their detoxification. Recent studies, using the standard ISO test with Daphnia (ISO 6341) and innoculation by activated sludge, have shown that toxicity (24-h EC50) have ranged from 4 to 1615 mg L-1 for 26 detergents, from 25 to 225 mg L-1 for 5 softeners, and from 0.54 – 163 mg L-1 for 9 shampoos. This variation suggest that there is a considerable potential for toxicity reduction among these products either through replacement of entire products or by chemical substitution. The former needs more transparency of environmental labelling and a more sophisticated labelling into more than one category. The latter implies a better communication and co-operation between academia, industry and regulators. Recent research on detoxification has shown a wide range also in detoxification and differences between products in abiotic (without activated sludge) and biotic (with activated sludge) degradation. Even if the reasons for all variation is not known it is obvious that this aspect should be considered together with toxicity in the hazard and risk assessment.

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