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A new approach to in-situ determination of roadside particle emission factors of individual vehicles under conventional driving conditions

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Claudia S. Hak
Mattias Hallquist
Evert Ljungström
Maria Svane
Jan B. C. Pettersson
Publicerad i Atmospheric Environment
Volym 43
Nummer/häfte 15
Sidor 2481-2488
Publiceringsår 2009
Publicerad vid Institutionen för kemi
Sidor 2481-2488
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009....
Ämnesord Ultrafine particles; Emission factor; Individual vehicles; Passenger cars
Ämneskategorier Kemi

Sammanfattning

A method for continuous on-road measurements of particle number emissions for both diesel- and petrol-fuelled vehicles is presented. The setup allows the determination of particle number emission factors on an individual vehicle basis by the simultaneous measurement of CO2 and particle concentrations. As an alternative to previous measurements on the kerbside, the sample is taken directly in the street, with the advantage of sampling in-situ within the exhaust plumes of passing vehicles, allowing the separation of the individual high-concentration plumes. The method was tested in two experiments that were conducted in the Gothenburg area. In the first study, which was performed at an urban roadside, we were able to determine particle emission factors from individual vehicles in a common car fleet passing the measurement site. The obtained emission factors were of the same order of magnitude (between 1.4 × 1012 and 1.8 × 1014 particles km−1) as values published in the recent literature for light duty vehicles. An additional on-road experiment was conducted at a rural road with four light duty reference vehicles (three of them petrol-powered and one diesel-powered) at driving speeds of 50 and 70 km h−1, realised with different engine speeds. The results of the traffic emission studies show that the method is applicable provided that instruments with an adequate dynamic range are used and that the traffic is not too dense. In addition, the variability in particle emissions for a specified driving condition was estimated.

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