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Morphometric study on the characteristic external features of normal and abnormal human embryos

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Hiroki Otani
Jun Udagawa
Torbjörn Lundh
Toshihisa Hatta
Ryuju Hashimoto
Akihiro Matsumoto
Fumio Satow
Publicerad i Congenit Anom Kyoto
Volym 48
Nummer/häfte 1
Sidor 18-28
Publiceringsår 2008
Publicerad vid Institutionen för matematiska vetenskaper, matematik
Sidor 18-28
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-4520.2007...
Ämneskategorier Anatomi, Morfologi, Annan matematik, Matematisk statistik, Tillämpad matematik

Sammanfattning

The embryonic period is characterized by organogenesis and accompanying dynamic changes in external features. The measurement of human embryos has been limited to whole body dimensions, such as crown-rump length. More detailed measurements would add quantitative information about these characteristic events and provide a better understanding of normal and abnormal embryonic development. In the present study, we defined axes, landmarks, and measurements for human embryos, and measured 250 externally normal human embryos at Carnegie stages 14-23 (6.5-29.3 mm in crown-rump length, approximately 5-8 weeks of estimated ovulation age) that were fixed in Bouin's solution and preserved in 10% formalin solution. The axes, landmarks, and measurements defined for human embryos are corresponding to those in human and primate fetuses. The whole body, head, face, and extremities were measured using a scale attached to a dissecting microscope. Axial length, head height plus ear-shoulder length plus trunk height, was designated as a new measurement of the whole body, which is comparable with crown-rump length. Approximate standards of these measurements were obtained. The ratios of some measurements to trunk height and between the different parts were also obtained, and several different developmental patterns were recognized. The reproducibility of each measurement was evaluated by measuring 50 specimens three times each at intervals of one or two months. As a pilot study for the application of the proposed measurements, 84 human embryos with external anomalies, including holoprosencephaly, anomalies of extremities, and pharyngeal arch anomalies, were measured using the same method, and a few tendencies characteristic to holoprosencephaly were noticed.

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