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Exploring SmBr2-, SmI2-, and YbI2-mediated reactions assisted by microwave irradiation.

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Anders Dahlén
Edamana Prasad
Robert A Flowers
Göran Hilmersson
Publicerad i Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)
Volym 11
Nummer/häfte 11
Sidor 3279-84
ISSN 0947-6539
Publiceringsår 2005
Publicerad vid Institutionen för kemi
Sidor 3279-84
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.200401320
Ämneskategorier Organisk kemi

Sammanfattning

The use of microwave heating in lanthanide(II) halide (LnX2 = SmBr2, SmI2, and YbI2) mediated reduction and coupling reactions has been investigated for a variety of functional groups including alpha,beta-unsaturated esters, aldehydes, ketones, imines, and alkyl halides. Good to quantitative transformations were obtained within a few minutes without the addition of any co-solvents, such as hexamethyl phosphoramide (HMPA). The redox potential of YbI2 in tetrahydrofuran (THF) has been determined as -1.02+/-0.05 V (versus Ag/AgNO3) by cyclic voltammetry. A large selectivity difference in various reactions was observed depending on the redox potential of the LnX2 reagent. The more powerful reductant, SmBr2, afforded mainly pinacol-coupling products of ketones whereas the weaker reductant YbI2 afforded mainly reduction products. The results indicate that the reducing power of LnX2 has a large impact on not only the pinacol coupling/reduction product ratio of ketones but also on other substrates in which there are competing coupling and reduction reactions. The use of in situ generated LnX2 has also been explored and proven useful in many of these reactions.

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