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Elevated dissolved heavy metal discharge following rainfall downstream of intensive horticulture

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare S. R. Conrad
Isaac R. Santos
S. A. White
S. Hessey
C. J. Sanders
Publicerad i Applied Geochemistry
Volym 113
Sidor 9
ISSN 0883-2927
Publiceringsår 2020
Publicerad vid Institutionen för marina vetenskaper
Sidor 9
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2019...
Ämnesord Mercury, Catchment export, Radon, First flush, ICOLL, Marine protected, area, organic-carbon, agricultural runoff, water-quality, total mercury, trace-metals, land-use, estuaries, exports, groundwater, chemistry, Geochemistry & Geophysics
Ämneskategorier Marin ekologi

Sammanfattning

Heavy metals may be released from soils during rain events. Observations during the first flush (rain event preceded by dry period) are difficult, but may account for a large fraction of annual loads. Here, we report detailed time series measurements of dissolved heavy metals and the groundwater tracer radon (Rn-222) over multiple rain events from a creek draining a catchment dominated by intensive horticulture on the subtropical east coast of Australia. The creek drains to an intermittently closed and open lake or lagoon (ICOLL), a typical estuary type along the east coast of Australia. A sandbank prevents the estuary mouth from connecting with the ocean during dry conditions. Following a 109 mm rain event, the ICOLL began to drain to the coastal ocean. Mean export of Hg, Cu, and Zn was 0.23 +/- 0.05, 1.06 +/- 0.25, and 15.70 +/- 2.69 g m(-2) day(-1) for the entire time series and 0.72 +/- 0.17, 1.27 +/- 0.12, 24.14 +/- 3.82 g m(-2) day(-1) averaged from high resolution sampling over 72 h of the first flush event. Trends of Hg export differed from the other heavy metals. Over 79% of the estimated Hg export occurred within 72 h of the ICOLL opening, compared to 30 and 38% of Cu and Zn. The first flush and subsequent major rain events (> 50 mm day(-1)) drove concentrations of Hg, Cu and Zn to exceed the Australia and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) water quality guidelines (WQG) for both fresh and marine water. Comparisons of heavy metal export to downstream estuary sediment burial rates revealed that the estuary is likely a source of dissolved Hg and Cd to the coastal ocean when the ICOLL is open.

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