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Reviews of Teaching Methods – What are the Fundamental Problems?

Konferensbidrag (offentliggjort, men ej förlagsutgivet)
Författare Åsa Hirsh
Claes Nilholm
Publicerad i Paper presented at ECER Conference Hamburg 2019
Publiceringsår 2019
Publicerad vid Institutionen för pedagogik och specialpedagogik
Språk en
Länkar https://eera-ecer.de/ecer-programme...
Ämneskategorier Pedagogik

Sammanfattning

In this paper we report an analysis of 75 of the most influential reviews of research on teaching methods, focusing on one overarching research question: Which reoccurring problems are pointed out in the reviews? We believe that identifying and discussing the nature of such problems can potentially advance the research area. Three main problems, cutting across reviews, appeared in the analysis as particularly common. 1/ The abundance of moderating factors An overview finding of high consensus is that a particular method has little or no effect per se, rather, our analysis shows that the effect depends on moderators linked to four (often interrelated) aspects: Differences in students, Differences in teachers, Differences in context, and Differences in content. 2/ The need for highly qualified teachers Overview finding 2 is linked to finding 1 and concerns the fact that moderating differences at the student level need to be recognized and compensated by the teacher organizing the instructional activities. In some of the underlying reviews this is explicitly discussed, but it is also a conclusion we draw on the basis of overview finding 1; since the effect of different methods is undoubtedly moderated by differences at the student level, the teacher's ability to adapt and balance the use of a particular method is crucial. 3/ The research-practice gap Despite the impossibility of providing “correct” answers applying once and for all, it can be argued that research over time (given certain caveats) points to the relative benefits of some methods. The methods do not seem to be put into practice by teachers, however. The research-practice gap is problematized and discussed in several of the included reviews. Our analysis shows that the causes of the gap can be related to three (often interrelated) aspects: Research, Teachers, and Context.

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