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Development of New Epoxy Resin Monomers - A Delicate Balance between Skin Allergy and Polymerization Properties

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare David J. Ponting
Miguel A. Ortega
Ida B Niklasson
Isabella Karlsson
Tina Seifert
Johanna Stéen
Kristina Luthman
Ann-Therese Karlberg
Publicerad i Chemical Research in Toxicology
Volym 32
Nummer/häfte 1
Sidor 57-66
ISSN 0893-228X
Publiceringsår 2019
Publicerad vid Institutionen för kemi och molekylärbiologi
Sidor 57-66
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.8...
Ämnesord contact-dermatitis, diglycidyl-ether, sensitization capacity, bisphenol-f, potency, relevance, analogs, risk
Ämneskategorier Biokemi och molekylärbiologi


Epoxy resin monomers (ERMs) are used as building blocks for thermosetting polymers in applications where strong, flexible, and lightweight materials are required. Most epoxy resins are polymers of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA). It is highly allergenic and causes occupational allergic contact dermatitis and contact allergy in the general population. Thus, measures to prevent exposure by protective clothing and education are not enough. This work describes a continuation of our research aiming at reducing the skin-sensitizing potency of ERMs while maintaining the ability to form polymers. Alternative ERMs were designed and synthesized whereafter the sensitizing potency was determined using the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). The reactivity of the diepoxides toward a nucleophilic peptide was investigated, and the differences in reactivity explained using computational studies. The diepoxides were reacted with triethylenetetramine, and the formed polymers were tested for technical applicability using thermogravimetric analysis. We had previously shown that the absence of an oxygen atom in the side chains or removal of aromaticity reduced the sensitizing potency compared to that of DGEBA. Thus, a cycloaliphatic analogue 1 of DGEBA without ether oxygen in the side chains was considered promising and was synthesized. As predicted, the sensitizing potency was considerably reduced (10 times) compared to that of DGEBA. However, the technical properties of the polymer of this compound were not considered sufficient. More polar aromatic analogues were investigated, but they could not compete with our previously described ERMs regarding polymerization properties and with 1 regarding low skin sensitization properties. Development of alternative epoxy materials is a delicate balance between allergenic activity and polymerization properties. Tuning of structural properties together with investigation of polymerization conditions combined with skin sensitization studies should be used in industrial research and development. ERM 1 could be used as a lead compound for further studies of aliphatic ERMs.

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