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Pathophysiological Consequences of Neuronal alpha-Synuclein Overexpression: Impacts on Ion Homeostasis, Stress Signaling, Mitochondrial Integrity, and Electrical Activity

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Johan Tolö
G. Taschenberger
K. Leite
M. A. Stahlberg
G. Spehlbrink
J. Kues
F. Munari
S. Capaldi
S. Becker
M. Zweckstetter
C. Dean
M. Bahr
S. Kugler
Publicerad i Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Volym 11
Sidor 1-21
ISSN 1662-5099
Publiceringsår 2018
Publicerad vid Institutionen för neurovetenskap och fysiologi, sektionen för fysiologi
Sidor 1-21
Språk en
Länkar https://doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2018....
Ämnesord synuclein, ATP, calcium, reactive oxygen species, thiol oxidation, apoptosis, Bcl-Xl, synchronized network activity, default-mode network, fluorescent protein indicators, parkinsons-disease, cell-death, dopaminergic-neurons, sh-sy5y cells, rett-syndrome, mouse model, in-vivo, calcium, Neurosciences & Neurology
Ämneskategorier Neurovetenskap, Neurologi

Sammanfattning

alpha-Synuclein (alpha-Syn) is intimately linked to the etiology of Parkinson's Disease, as mutations and even subtle increases in gene dosage result in early onset of the disease. However, how this protein causes neuronal dysfunction and neurodegeneration is incompletely understood. We thus examined a comprehensive range of physiological parameters in cultured rat primary neurons overexpressing alpha-Syn at levels causing a slowly progressive neurodegeneration. In contradiction to earlier reports from non-neuronal assay systems we demonstrate that alpha-Syn does not interfere with essential ion handling capacities, mitochondrial capability of ATP production or basic electro-physiological properties like resting membrane potential or the general ability to generate action potentials. alpha-Syn also does not activate canonical stress kinase Signaling converging on SAPK/Jun, p38 MAPK or Erk kinases. Causative for alpha-Syn-induced neurodegeneration are mitochondrial thiol oxidation and activation of caspases downstream of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, leading to apoptosis-like cell death execution with some unusual aspects. We also aimed to elucidate neuroprotective strategies counteracting the pathophysiological processes caused by alpha-Syn. Neurotrophic factors, calpain inhibition and increased lysosomal protease capacity showed no protective effects against alpha-Syn overexpression. In contrast, the major watchdog of outer mitochondrial membrane integrity, Bcl-Xl, was capable of almost completely preventing neuron death, but did not prevent mitochondrial thiol oxidation. Importantly, independent from the quite mono-causal induction of neurotoxicity, alpha-Syn causes diminished excitability of neurons by external stimuli and robust impairments in endogenous neuronal network activity by decreasing the frequency of action potentials generated without external stimulation. This latter finding suggests that alpha-Syn can induce neuronal dysfunction independent from its induction of neurotoxicity and might serve as an explanation for functional deficits that precede neuronal cell loss in synucleopathies like Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies.

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