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Neurological and neuropsychological effects of low and moderate prenatal alcohol exposure

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare E. Comasco
Jenny Rangmar
U. J. Eriksson
L. Oreland
Publicerad i Acta Physiologica
Volym 222
Nummer/häfte 1
ISSN 1748-1708
Publiceringsår 2018
Publicerad vid Psykologiska institutionen
Språk en
Länkar doi.org/10.1111/apha.12892
Ämnesord alcohol, development, epigenetics, gene, pregnancy, prenatal, serotonin transporter gene, linked polymorphic region, cognition-enhancing agent, messenger-rna expression, retinoic acid, exposure, monoamine-oxidase, spectrum disorders, ethanol exposure, promoter polymorphism, synaptic plasticity
Ämneskategorier Reproduktiv hälsa, Neurologi

Sammanfattning

Several explanations for the diverse results in research on foetal alcohol spectrum disorders or alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder might be at hand: timing, amount and patterns of alcohol exposure, as well as complex epigenetic responses. The genetic background of the offspring and its interaction with other prenatal and post-natal environmental cues are likely also of importance. In the present report, key findings about the possible effects of low and moderate doses of maternal alcohol intake on the neuropsychological development of the offspring are reviewed and plausible mechanisms discussed. Special focus is put on the serotonergic system within developmental and gene-environment frameworks. The review also suggests guidelines for future studies and also summarizes some of to-be-answered questions of relevance to clinical practice. Contradictory findings and paucity of studies on the effects of exposure to low alcohol levels during foetal life for the offspring's neuropsychological development call for large prospective studies, as well as for studies including neuroimaging and multi-omics analyses to dissect the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol exposure-related phenotypes and to identify biomarkers. Finally, it remains to be investigated whether any safe threshold of alcohol drinking during pregnancy can be identified.

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