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Complement Opsonization Promotes Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Infection of Human Dendritic Cells

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare E. Crisci
R. Ellegard
S. Nystrom
E. Rondahl
L. Serrander
Tomas Bergström
C. Sjowall
Kristina Eriksson
M. Larsson
Publicerad i Journal of Virology
Volym 90
Nummer/häfte 10
Sidor 4939-4950
ISSN 0022-538X
Publiceringsår 2016
Publicerad vid Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för reumatologi och inflammationsforskning
Institutionen för biomedicin, avdelningen för infektionssjukdomar
Sidor 4939-4950
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.1128/jvi.00224-16
Ämnesord systemic-lupus-erythematosus, glycoprotein-c, genital herpes, dc-sign, mediated neutralization, enhances infection, cross-presentation, type-2, infection, dependent manner, hsv-2 infection, Virology
Ämneskategorier Klinisk medicin

Sammanfattning

Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections globally, with a very high prevalence in many countries. During HSV-2 infection, viral particles become coated with complement proteins and antibodies, both present in genital fluids, which could influence the activation of immune responses. In genital mucosa, the primary target cells for HSV-2 infection are epithelial cells, but resident immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs), are also infected. DCs are the activators of the ensuing immune responses directed against HSV-2, and the aim of this study was to examine the effects opsonization of HSV-2, either with complement alone or with complement and antibodies, had on the infection of immature DCs and their ability to mount inflammatory and antiviral responses. Complement opsonization of HSV-2 enhanced both the direct infection of immature DCs and their production of new infectious viral particles. The enhanced infection required activation of the complement cascade and functional complement receptor 3. Furthermore, HSV-2 infection of DCs required endocytosis of viral particles and their delivery into an acid endosomal compartment. The presence of complement in combination with HSV-1- or HSV-2-specific antibodies more or less abolished HSV-2 infection of DCs. Our results clearly demonstrate the importance of studying HSV-2 infection under conditions that ensue in vivo, i.e., conditions under which the virions are covered in complement fragments and complement fragments and antibodies, as these shape the infection and the subsequent immune response and need to be further elucidated. During HSV-2 infection, viral particles should become coated with complement proteins and antibodies, both present in genital fluids, which could influence the activation of the immune responses. The dendritic cells are activators of the immune responses directed against HSV-2, and the aim of this study was to examine the effects of complement alone or complement and antibodies on HSV-2 infection of dendritic cells and their ability to mount inflammatory and antiviral responses. Our results demonstrate that the presence of antibodies and complement in the genital environment can influence HSV-2 infection under in vitro conditions that reflect the in vivo situation. We believe that our findings are highly relevant for the understanding of HSV-2 pathogenesis.

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