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Residential NOx exposure in a 35-year cohort study. Changes of exposure, and comparison with back extrapolation for historical exposure assessment

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Peter Molnár
Leo Stockfelt
Lars Barregård
Gerd Sällsten
Publicerad i Atmospheric Environment
Volym 115
Sidor 62-69
ISSN 1352-2310
Publiceringsår 2015
Publicerad vid Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa
Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa, enheten för arbets-och miljömedicin
Sidor 62-69
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015....
Ämnesord Air pollution , Back extrapolation , Dispersion modeling , GIS , NO2, Spatial distribution , Time trends
Ämneskategorier Miljömedicin

Sammanfattning

In this study we aimed to investigate the effects on historical NOx estimates on time trends, spatial distributions, exposure contrasts, the effect of relocation patterns and the effects of back extrapolation. Historical levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from 1975 to 2009 were modeled with high resolution in Gothenburg, Sweden, using historical emission databases and Gaussian models. Yearly historical addresses were collected and geocoded from a population-based cohort of Swedish men from 1973 to 2007, with a total of 160,568 address years. Of these addresses, 146,675 (91%) were within our modeled area and assigned a NOx level. NOx levels decreased substantially from a maximum median level of 43.9μg/m3 in 1983 to 16.6μg/m3 in 2007, mainly due to lower emissions per vehicle km. There was a considerable variability in concentrations within the cohort, with a ratio of 3.5 between the means in the highest and lowest quartile. About 50% of the participants changed residential address during the study, but the mean NOx exposure was not affected. About half of these moves resulted in a positive or negative change in NOx exposure of >10μg/m3, and thus changed the exposure substantially. Back extrapolation of NOx levels using the time trend of a background monitoring station worked well for 5-7 years back in time, but extrapolation more than ten years back in time resulted in substantial scattering compared to the "true" dispersion models for the corresponding years. These findings are important to take into account since accurate exposure estimates are essential in long term epidemiological studies of health effects of air pollution.

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