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Feeding ecology of Xenoturbella bocki (phylum Xenoturbellida) revealed by genetic barcoding

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Sarah Bourlat
Hiroaki Nakano
M. Akerman
M. J. Telford
Michael C. Thorndyke
Matthias Obst
Publicerad i Molecular Ecology Resources
Volym 8
Nummer/häfte 1
Sidor 18-22
ISSN 1755-098X
Publiceringsår 2008
Publicerad vid Zoologiska institutionen
Institutionen för marin ekologi
Sidor 18-22
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.1111/J.1471-8286.2007...
Ämnesord barcoding, feeding ecology, nucula, xenoturbella, deuterostome, DNA
Ämneskategorier Biologiska vetenskaper, Zoologi, Genetik

Sammanfattning

The benthic marine worm Xenoturbella is frequently contaminated with molluscan DNA, which had earlier caused confusion resulting in a suggested bivalve relationship. In order to find the source of the contaminant, we have used molluscan sequences derived from Xenoturbella and compared them to barcodes obtained from several individuals of the nonmicroscopic molluscs sharing the same environment as Xenoturbella. Using cytochrome oxidase 1, we found the contaminating sequences to be 98% similar to the bivalve Ennucula tenuis. Using the highly variable D1-D2 region of the large ribosomal subunit in Xenoturbella, we found three distinct species of contaminating molluscs, one of which is 99% similar to the bivalve Abra nitida, one of the most abundant bivalves in the Gullmarsfjord where Xenoturbella was found, and another 99% similar to the bivalve Nucula sulcata. These data clearly show that Xenoturbella only contains molluscan DNA originating from bivalves living in the same environment, refuting former hypotheses of a bivalve relationship. In addition, these data suggest that Xenoturbella feeds specifically on bivalve prey from multiple species, possibly in the form of eggs and larvae.

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