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Vitamin a metabolism, action, and role in skeletal homeostasis.

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare H Herschel Conaway
Petra Henning
Ulf H Lerner
Publicerad i Endocrine reviews
Volym 34
Nummer/häfte 6
Sidor 766-97
ISSN 1945-7189
Publiceringsår 2013
Publicerad vid Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research
Sidor 766-97
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.1210/er.2012-1071
Ämneskategorier Endokrinologi

Sammanfattning

Vitamin A (retinol) is ingested as either retinyl esters or carotenoids and metabolized to active compounds such as 11-cis-retinal, which is important for vision, and all-trans-retinoic acid, which is the primary mediator of biological actions of vitamin A. All-trans-retinoic acid binds to retinoic acid receptors (RARs), which heterodimerize with retinoid X receptors. RAR-retinoid X receptor heterodimers function as transcription factors, binding RAR-responsive elements in promoters of different genes. Numerous cellular functions, including bone cell functions, are mediated by vitamin A; however, it has long been recognized that increased levels of vitamin A can have deleterious effects on bone, resulting in increased skeletal fragility. Bone mass is dependent on the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. A decrease in bone mass may be caused by either an excess of resorption or decreased bone formation. Early studies indicated that the primary skeletal effect of vitamin A was to increase bone resorption, but later studies have shown that vitamin A can not only stimulate the formation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts but also inhibit their formation. Effects of vitamin A on bone formation have not been studied in as great a detail and are not as well characterized as effects on bone resorption. Several epidemiological studies have shown an association between vitamin A, decreased bone mass, and osteoporotic fractures, but the data are not conclusive because other studies have found no associations, and some studies have suggested that vitamin A primarily promotes skeletal health. In this presentation, we have summarized how vitamin A is absorbed and metabolized and how it functions intracellularly. Vitamin A deficiency and excess are introduced, and detailed descriptions of clinical and preclinical studies of the effects of vitamin A on the skeleton are presented.

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