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Determinants of personal exposure to some carcinogenic substances and nitrogen dioxide among the general population in five Swedish cities.

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Annika Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson
Andreas Tornevi
Eva M. Andersson
Sandra Johannesson
Tom Bellander
Anne-Sophie Merritt
Håkan Tinnerberg
Håkan Westberg
Bertil Forsberg
Gerd Sällsten
Publicerad i Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
Volym 24
Nummer/häfte 4
Sidor 437-443
ISSN 1559-0631
Publiceringsår 2014
Publicerad vid Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa, enheten för arbets-och miljömedicin
Sidor 437-443
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.1038/jes.2013.57
Ämnesord variablitet, exponering, allmänbefolkning, VOC
Ämneskategorier Annan medicin och hälsovetenskap

Sammanfattning

Environmental levels of airborne carcinogenic and related substances are comparatively better known than individual exposure and its determinants. We report on a personal monitoring program involving five Swedish urban populations. The aim of the program was to investigate personal exposure to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The measurements were performed among 40 inhabitants during seven consecutive days, in one urban area each year, during 2000-2008. The estimated population exposure levels were 1.95 μg/m(3) for benzene, 0.56 μg/m(3) for 1,3-butadiene, 19.4 μg/m(3) for formaldehyde, and 14.1 μg/m(3) for NO2. Statistical analysis using a mixed-effects model revealed that time spent in traffic and time outdoors contributed to benzene and 1,3- butadiene exposure. For benzene, refueling a car was an additional determinant influencing the exposure level. Smoking or environmental tobacco smoke were significant determinants of exposure to NO2, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene. Those with a gas stove had higher NO2 exposure. Living in a single-family house increased the exposure to formaldehyde significantly. In a variance component model, the between-subject variance dominated for 1,3-butadiene and formaldehyde, whereas the between-city variance dominated for NO2. For benzene, the between-subject and between-cities variances were similar.

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