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Intestinal fluid absorption in anadromous salmonids: importance of tight junctions and aquaporins.

Forskningsöversiktsartikel
Författare Kristina Sundell
Henrik Sundh
Publicerad i Frontiers in physiology
Volym 3
Sidor 1-12, article 388
ISSN 1664-042X
Publiceringsår 2012
Publicerad vid Institutionen för biologi och miljövetenskap
Sidor 1-12, article 388
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2012.00388
Ämneskategorier Zoofysiologi

Sammanfattning

The anadromous salmonid life cycle includes both fresh water (FW) and seawater (SW) stages. The parr-smolt transformation (smoltification) pre-adapt the fish to SW while still in FW. The osmoregulatory organs change their mode of action from a role of preventing water inflow in FW, to absorb ions to replace water lost by osmosis in SW. During smoltification, the drinking rate increases, in the intestine the ion and fluid transport increases and is further elevated after SW entry. In SW, the intestine absorbs ions to create an inwardly directed water flow which is accomplished by increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity in the basolateral membrane, driving ion absorption via ion channels and/or co-transporters. This review will aim at discussing the expression patterns of the ion transporting proteins involved in intestinal fluid absorption in the FW stage, during smoltification and after SW entry. Of equal importance for intestinal fluid absorption as the active absorption of ions is the permeability of the epithelium to ions and water. During the smoltification the increase in NKA activity and water uptake in SW is accompanied by decreased paracellular permeability suggesting a redirection of the fluid movement from a paracellular route in FW, to a transcellular route in SW. Increased transcellular fluid absorption could be achieved by incorporation of aquaporins (AQPs) into the enterocyte membranes and/or by a change in fatty acid profile of the enterocyte lipid bilayer. An increased incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids into the membrane phospholipids will increase water permeability by enhancing the fluidity of the membrane. A second aim of the present review is therefore to discuss the presence and regulation of expression of AQPs in the enterocyte membrane as well as to discuss the profile of fatty acids present in the membrane phospholipids during different stages of the salmonid lifecycle.

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