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Evaluation of tests best suited for ecotoxicological and ecological hazard screening of Zn contaminated naturally acidic soil

Paper i proceeding
Författare Emily Chapman
Stephanie Hedrei Helmer
John Murimboh
Göran Dave
Publicerad i SETAC Europe: 20th Annual Meeting, 23-27 May 2010, Seville, Spain, PROGRAMME BOOK
Publiceringsår 2010
Publicerad vid Institutionen för växt- och miljövetenskaper
Språk en
Ämnesord ecological hazard assessment, soil, Zn, pH
Ämneskategorier Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap, Biologiska vetenskaper, Toxikologi

Sammanfattning

Relying on total concentrations of metals in ecological risk screening of contaminated soil is not sufficient. The bioavailability of metals also needs to be considered. Currently, most standardized bioassays require extensive handling of the soil, including sieving, homogenization, pH alterations, and drying. However, extensive handling of the soil may change the bioavailability of metals. It is also important to use tests and organisms that are sensitive to metal contamination but can withstand, for example, naturally acidic soil. These organisms should also be ecologically relevant. Ideally, the soil samples used for the screening assessment should be kept as intact soil cores collected from the field to minimize any metal speciation changes. In this study uncontaminated soil cores with low pH were collected from the field. The soil was spiked with ZnCl2 in increasing concentrations. No other alterations were made to the soil and the soil cores were kept intact from the field. The soil as well as pore water draining from the soil was then used to test a number of different organisms and one functional end point. The following organisms and tests were used in the study; bioassays with red clover (Trifolium pretense L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and red fescue (Festuca rubra L.), Bait lamina tests measuring the soil microbial and invertebrate activity, Acute luminescent bacteria test (Microtox®), Enzyme (beta-galactosidase) activity in E-coli with MetSTICKs, and mobility of Daphnia magna. Each of these methods will be assessed in terms of sensitivity to Zn contamination and low pH. The tests best suited for routine use in the hazard screening process of naturally acidic metal contaminated soil samples will be identified and presented.

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