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[Nerve cell damages in whiplash injuries. Animal experimental studies]

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare M Y Svensson
B Aldman
O Boström
J Davidsson
Hans-Arne Hansson
P Lövsund
A Suneson
Annette Säljö
Publicerad i Der Orthopäde
Volym 27
Nummer/häfte 12
Sidor 820-6
ISSN 0085-4530
Publiceringsår 1998
Publicerad vid Institutionen för anatomi och cellbiologi
Sidor 820-6
Språk de
Länkar www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...
Ämnesord Animals, Craniocerebral Trauma, physiopathology, Disease Models, Animal, Head, innervation, Humans, Neck, innervation, Neurons, Swine, Whiplash Injuries, physiopathology
Ämneskategorier Neurovetenskap

Sammanfattning

Mechanical loading of the cervical spine during car accidents often lead to a number of neck injury symptoms with the common term Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD). Several of these symptoms could possibly be explained by injuries to the cervical spinal nerve root region. It was hypothesised that the changes in the inner volume of the cervical spinal canal during neck extension-flexion motion would cause transient pressure changes in the CNS as a result of hydro-dynamic effects, and thereby mechanically load the nerve roots and cause tissue damage. To test the hypothesis, anaesthetised pigs were exposed to experimental neck trauma in the extension, flexion and lateral flexion modes. The severity of the trauma was kept below the level where cervical fractures occur. Transient pressure pulses in the cervical spinal canal were duly recorded. Signs of cell membrane dysfunction were found in the nerve cell bodies of the cervical spinal ganglia. Ganglion injuries may explain some of the symptoms associated with soft-tissue neck injuries in car accidents. When the pig's head was pulled rearward relative to its torso to resemble a rear-end collision situation, it was found that ganglion injuries occurred very early on in the neck motion, at the stage where the motion changes from retraction to extension motion. Ganglion injuries did not occur when pigs were exposed to similar static loading of the neck. This indicates that these injuries are a result of dynamic phenomena and thereby further supports the pressure hypothesis. A Neck Injury Criterion (NIC) based on a theoretical model of the pressure effects was developed. It indicated that it was the differential horizontal acceleration and velocity between the head and the upper torso at the point of maximum neck retraction that determined the risk of ganglion injuries.

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