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[There is a strong evidence that professional boxing results in chronic brain damage. The more head punches during a boxer's career, the bigger is the risk]

Review article
Authors Kaj Blennow
Cornel Popa
Abdullah Rasulzada
Lennart Minthon
Anders Wallin
Henrik Zetterberg
Published in Läkartidningen
Volume 102
Issue 36
Pages 2468-70, 2472-5
ISSN 0023-7205
Publication year 2005
Published at Institute of Clinical Neurosciences, Section of Experimental Neuroscience
Pages 2468-70, 2472-5
Language sv
Keywords Alzheimer Disease, diagnosis, etiology, psychology, Boxing, injuries, Brain, pathology, radiography, Brain Damage, Chronic, diagnosis, etiology, psychology, Brain Injury, Chronic, diagnosis, etiology, psychology, Dementia, diagnosis, etiology, physiopathology, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Syndrome, Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Subject categories Psychiatry


The clinical symptomatology and pathogenic mechanisms of chronic traumatic brain injury associated with boxing (CTBI-B) is reviewed. This syndrome is also known as punch drunk syndrome or dementia pugilistica. Since even milder forms of CTBI-B are rare among amateur boxers, we make a distinction between amateur and professional boxing throughout the review. Focus is also set on the interesting similarities in neurochemical changes and pathogenic mechanisms between CTBI-B, acute traumatic brain injury (e.g. road traffic accidents) and Alzheimer's disease.

Page Manager: Webmaster|Last update: 9/11/2012

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