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Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of women in relation to personality traits.

Journal article
Authors Fariba Baghaei
Roland Rosmond
Mikael Landén
Lars Westberg
Monika Hellstrand
Göran Holm
Elias Eriksson
Per Björntorp
Published in International journal of behavioral medicine
Volume 10
Issue 4
Pages 365-78
ISSN 1070-5503
Publication year 2003
Published at Cardiovascular Institute
Institute of Physiology and Pharmacology, Dept of Pharmacology
Institute of Clinical Neurosciences, Section of Psychiatry
Pages 365-78
Language en
Keywords Adult, Androgens, genetics, Aromatase, genetics, Female, Gender Identity, Genotype, Humans, Personality, genetics, Phenotype, Polymorphism, Genetic, Psychosexual Development, Questionnaires, Receptors, Androgen, genetics, Self Concept, Socioeconomic Factors, Sweden
Subject categories Pharmacology and Toxicology


The associations were examined in women between personality traits and steroid hormones, particularly androgens, as well as polymorphisms in genes regulating androgen concentration and effects. Women, all 42 years of age and premenopausal (n = 270), were recruited randomly. Conventional "masculine" and "feminine" personality traits were examined by questionnaire and set in relation to psychosocial and socioeconomic conditions, behavior in childhood, hormones, risk factors for disease, and polymorphisms in microsatellites in the CYP aromatase and the androgen receptor gene. The proportions of personality traits considered as being dominated by "masculinity" (M) or "femininity" (F) were 44.9%, respectively 15.0%, the rest consisting of a combination of M and F (33.2%) or "undifferentiated" (6.9%). M characteristics were positively associated with education, sporting, self-confidence, and good adaptation to work situation. M scores correlated with reports of "tomboyism" as girls. There was essentially no difference in hormones or disease risk factors between M and F women. The number of (CAG) repeats in the microsatellite of the transactivating domain of the androgen receptor was 19 (2.3; M and SD). M characteristics were more pronounced in the presence of longer repeat stretches (n > 20). No associations were found with F scores. There were no significant associations to the number of tetranucleotide repeats (TTTA) in the fourth introne of the aromatase gene. It was concluded that a majority of women showed M type of personality traits, associated with normal hormones, somatic health, and a long microsatellite in the transactivating domain of the AR gene.

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