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Delayed peripheral administration of a GPE analogue induces astrogliosis and angiogenesis and reduces inflammation and brain injury following hypoxia-ischemia in the neonatal rat.

Journal article
Authors Pernilla Svedin
Jian Guan
Sam Mathai
Rong Zhang
Xiaoyang Wang
Malin Gustavsson
Henrik Hagberg
Carina Mallard
Published in Developmental neuroscience
Volume 29
Issue 4-5
Pages 393-402
ISSN 1421-9859
Publication year 2007
Published at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Physiology
Institute of Clinical Sciences
Pages 393-402
Language en
Keywords Animals, Animals, Newborn, Apoptosis, drug effects, physiology, Astrocytes, drug effects, physiology, Birth Injuries, drug therapy, pathology, physiopathology, Brain, blood supply, drug effects, physiopathology, Caspase 3, drug effects, metabolism, Cerebral Arteries, drug effects, growth & development, Disease Models, Animal, Drug Administration Schedule, Encephalitis, drug therapy, pathology, physiopathology, Gliosis, drug therapy, pathology, physiopathology, Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain, drug therapy, pathology, physiopathology, Interleukins, metabolism, Neovascularization, Physiologic, drug effects, physiology, Nerve Degeneration, drug therapy, pathology, physiopathology, Neuroprotective Agents, pharmacology, therapeutic use, Oligopeptides, pharmacology, therapeutic use, Rats, Rats, Wistar, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome
Subject categories Medical and Health Sciences


Glycine 2-methyl proline glutamate (G-2mPE) is a proline-modified analogue to the naturally existing N-terminal tripeptide glycine-proline-glutamate that is a cleaved product from insulin-like growth factor-1. G-2mPE is designed to be more enzymatically resistant than glycine-proline-glutamate and to increase its bioavailability. The current study has investigated the protective effects of G-2mPE following hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the neonatal brain. On postnatal day 7, Wistar rats were exposed to hypoxia-ischemia (HI). HI was induced by unilateral ligation of the left carotid artery followed by hypoxia (7.7% O2, 36 degrees C) for 60 min. The drug treatment started 2 h after the insult, and the pups were given either 1.2 mg/kg (bolus), 1.2 mg/ml once a day for 7 days, or vehicle. The degree of brain damage was determined histochemically by thionin/acid fuchsin staining. G-2mPE's anti-inflammatory properties were investigated by IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-18 ELISA, and effects on apoptosis by caspase 3 activity. Vascularization was determined immunohistochemically by the total length of isolectin-positive blood vessels. Effect on astrocytosis was also determined in the hippocampus. Animals treated with multiple doses of G-2mPE demonstrated reduced overall brain injury 7 days after HI, particularly in the hippocampus and thalamus compared to vehicle-treated rats. The expression of IL-6 was decreased in G-2mPE-treated animals compared to vehicle-treated pups, and both the capillary length and astrogliosis were increased in the drug-treated animals. There was no effect on caspase 3 activity. This study indicates that peripheral administration of G-2mPE, starting 2 h after a hypoxic-ischemic insult, reduces the degree of brain injury in the immature rat brain. The normalization of IL-6 levels and the promotion of both neovascularization and reactive astrocytosis may be potential mechanisms that underlie its protective effects.

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