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Pharmacogenomics of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and MDR1 in Vietnam.

Journal article
Authors M I Veiga
Sara Asimus
P E Ferreira
J P Martins
I Cavaco
V Ribeiro
T N Hai
Max Petzold
A Björkman
Michael Ashton
J P Gil
Published in European journal of clinical pharmacology
Volume 65
Issue 4
Pages 355-63
ISSN 1432-1041
Publication year 2009
Published at Department of Economics, Statistical Research Unit
Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Pharmacology
Pages 355-63
Language en
Keywords Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases, genetics, Asian Continental Ancestry Group, genetics, Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6, genetics, Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A, genetics, Gene Frequency, Genotype, Humans, Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating, genetics, P-Glycoprotein, genetics, Pharmacogenetics, Polymorphism, Genetic, Vietnam
Subject categories Pharmacology and Toxicology


AIM: The aim of this study was to obtain pharmacogenetic data in a Vietnamese population on genes coding for proteins involved in the elimination of drugs currently used for the treatment of malaria and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. METHOD: The main polymorphisms on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, and the multi-drug resistance 1 gene (MDR1) were genotyped in 78 healthy Vietnamese subjects. Pharmacokinetic metrics were available for CYP2A6 (coumarin), CYP2C19 (mephenytoin), CYP2D6 (metoprolol) and CYP3As (midazolam), allowing correlations with the determined genotype. RESULTS: In the CYP2 family, we detected alleles CYP2A6*4 (12%) and *5 (15%); CYP2B6*4 (8%), *6 (27%); CYP2C19*2 (31%) and *3 (6%); CYP2D6*4, *5, *10 (1, 8 and 44%, respectively). In the CYP3A family, CYP3A4*1B was detected at a low frequency (2%), whereas CYP3A5 *3 was detected at a frequency of 67%. The MDR1 3435T allele was present with a prevalence of 40%. Allele proportions in our cohort were compared with those reported for other Asian populations. CYP2C19 genotypes were associated to the S-4'-OH-mephenytoin/S-mephenytoin ratio quantified in plasma 4 h after intake of 100 mg mephenytoin. While CYP2D6 genotypes were partially reflected by the alpha-OH-metroprolol/metoprolol ratio in plasma 4 h after dosing, no correlation existed between midazolam plasma concentrations 4 h post-dose and CYP3A genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The Vietnamese subjects of our study cohort presented allele prevalences in drug-metabolising enzymes that were generally comparable with those reported in other Asian populations. Deviations were found for CYP2A6*4 compared to a Chinese population (12 vs. 5%, respectively; P = 0.023), CYP2A6*5 compared with a Korean population (15 vs. <1%, respectively; P < 0.0001), a Malaysian population (1%; P < 0.0001) and a Chinese population (1%; P < 0.0001); CYP2B6*6 compared with a Korean population (27 vs. 12%; P = 0.002) and a Japanese population (16%; P = 0.021). Pharmacokinetic metrics versus genotype analysis reinforces the view that the predictive value of certain globally common variants (e.g. CYP2D6 single nucleotide polymorphisms) should be evaluated in a population-specific manner.

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